SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

Glysine max, Leguminaceae

Soybean is originated from China. It is also known as Wonder crop or Yellow jewel. It is basically a pulse crop but in India mostly grown as oil seed crop. It is the major oilseeds crop in the world and accounts for 50% of the area as well as production. It contains 42% of protein (lysine) and 20% oil.

VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS

Kent, Bragg, Lee, Ankur, Monato, Shilajeet, Alankar, Punjab-1, Co-1, Co-2

CLIMATE

It requires warm and moist climate. A temperature of 26 to 30 degrees is ideal for most of the varieties. Lower temperature tends to delay in flowering.

SEASON

It can be grown in

Kharif season : June-Oct

Rabi season : Nov-Feb

SOIL REQUIREMENT

It requires well drained fertile loamy soil for better yield. It grown well in pH between 6 and 7.5. Sodic and saline soils inhibits germination of seeds.

SEED RATE AND SPACING

It requires 70-80kg/ha of seeds and spacing of 45-60*15-20 has to be maintained.

FIELD PREPARATION

Prepare the land to get fine tilth by giving 2-3 ploughings. Form beds and channels of recommended size.

SEED TREATMENT WITH FUNGICIDES

Seeds have to be treated with Thiram or Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seeds 24 hrs before sowing. They can also be treated with biofertilizers like rhizobium and bio control agents.

SOWING

Sowing should be done in 3rd week of June to 1st fort night(15th) of July. Seeds should be sown at the deapth of 3cm by dibbling method. line sowing is followed.

 FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  • Apply 20 kg of Urea and 80 kg SSP and 40 kg MOP per ha 40 kg of Sulphur as basal dose. Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition      
  • Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/litre or urea 20 g/litre once at flowering and another at 15 days gives good yield

WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigate immediately after sowing. Give life irrigation on the 3rd day. Further irrigations at intervals of 7 – 10 and 10 – 15 days during summer and winter season respectively may be given depending on soil and weather conditions. Soybean is very sensitive to excess moisture and the crop is affected, if water stagnates in the fields. The crop should not suffer due to water stress from flowering to maturity.

WEED MANAGEMENT

Major weeds that can be seen in this crop are Echinoclova colanum, Cyprus rotandus, Sorghum helepense, Thrinthema etc.

  • Pendimethalin @ 3.3 litre ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing. Pre emergent applicatiom of Metribuzin at 1-1.5 kg/ha should be done.
  • If herbicide spray is not given two hand weedings on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
  • Imazethapyr @ 750g/ha may be applied as post emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.

HARVESTING

It is carried out when the leaves turn Yellow, start to shed. It indicates the maturity of the crop. Cut the entire plant when most of the pods have turned yellow. Later drying and processing is done.

YIELD

We can obtain an average yield of 2000-2500 kg/ha in irrigated condition. Whereas in rainfed condition we can obtain 1600-2000 kg/ha.

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