Arachis hypogaea, Leguminaceae
Groundnut is a significant oilseed, ideal for cultivation in tropic regions of the country. Groundnut is a species in the legume or “bean” family. It is considered to be local in South America. These are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and peanuts. Groundnut is the third most important oilseed of world. In India, it is available throughout the year. It is important source of protein grown mostly under rain-fed conditions. In India, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are major groundnut growing states.
Varieties and Hybrids
- Igola-1 (semi-spreading variety)
- Roxo 531 (red seed)
- Red Beauty (Red seeded)
- Valencia type.
- Serere red.
- Serenut 1-14.
- Other varieties are PG -1, C-501, M-335, GG-8, GG-21, M-145, SG-84 etc.
It requires temperature of 20-30 degrees, rainfall of 50-75cm
Groundnut is raised in a sandy loam as well as well drained sandy clay loam soil. Deep well- drained soil with pH of 6.5 -7 as well as having great fertility are perfect for groundnut cultivation. Spanish as well as Runner varieties are beneficial for good quality soil compared to the Virginia forms. The lack of pods is often rich in heavier grounds. An excellent climatic condition for better germination of groundnut is 31° C. Heavy and stiff clays are unsuitable for groundnut cultivation as the pod development is hampered in these soils.
After harvesting of previous crop, plough the land twice and pulverised soil to obtained good tilth of soil. Give a third ploughing if necessary for rainfed crop, in the end of June or early July. Use harrow or tillers for cultivation purpose. When land is heavily infested with perennial weeds, very deep ploughing is needed. For irrigated crop, make beds of convenient size depending upon topography. Nature of irrigation source etc. Application of 5-7 ton/acre of chicken manure or 10 ton/acre of farm yard manure or well decomposed cow dung should be done 1 month before sowing. It helps to improve soil structure along with good plant growth
For sowing use seed rate of 38-40kg/acre.
Spacing and Sowing
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm. Sow the seeds at recommended spacing and deapth.
Use healthy and well developed kernels for sowing. Discard very small, shrivelled and diseased kernels. Carry out seed treatment with Thiram@5gm or Captan@2-3 gm/kg or Mancozeb@4g/kg or Carboxin or Carbendazim@2gm/kg of the kernels to avoid infestation from ground borne disease.
Groundnut–Late Kharif Fodder/Gobhi sarson+Toria /Potato/Peas/Toria/Rabi crops rotation can be taken up successfully where irrigation facilities exist. Avoid sowing groundnut in the same field year after year, as this practice results in heavy build- up of soil-borne diseases.
Manures and Fertilizers
Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil test is not done, follow the blanket recommendation.
N and K in three splits viz., 50 % N & K as basal + 25 % N and K at 20 DAS + 25 % N and K at 45 DAS is recommended.
To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is important. This can be prepared by soaking DAP@2.5 kg, Ammonium sulphate@1kg and Borax@500 gm in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 16 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 234 lit of water so as to made up to 200 litre to spray for one acre. Planofix@4ml/15 ltr can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing.
Irrigation for two or three time depending upon seasonal rainfall is necessary for good crop growth. Apply first irrigation at flowering stage. If the Kharif crop is caught in a long spell of draught, especially at the pod formation stage, supplemental irrigation is given, if water is available (In pod development stage, 2 – 3 irrigations are given depending on the soil type). Another irrigation a few days before the harvest may be given for full recovery for pods from soil.
Deficiencies seen in groundnut
Leaves are not growing properly and grows in irregular shape. Mature leaves show pale yellow appearance and veins remain green.
To overcome deficiency apply Muriate of Potash@16-20kg/acre.
Mostly observed in light soils or alkaline soils. Plants not grow properly. Leaves show curling up.
To overcome this deficiency apply Gypsum@200kg/acre at peg formation stage.
Entire leaf get white or chlorotic.
If deficiency is observed, spray crop with ferrous sulphate@5gm + citric acid@1gm/Ltr of water with one week interval. Continue spraying till deficiency get disappeared.
Affected plant shows leaves in cluster form, leaves growth get stunted and appear small.
Take spray of Zinc sulphate@2gm/Litre of water. Spray for two-three times with 7 days interval.
Young Plant growth get stunted and appeared smaller in size. Also leaves are small and give yellowish appearance. Maturity of plant get delayed.
As a preventive measure apply Gypsum@200kg/acre at planting and pegging stage.
Kharif sown crop is get ready to harvest in month of November. When plant show uniform yellowing of crop along with shedding of older leaves. Crop sown during April end – May end is ready for harvesting after the monsoons are over towards end of August and September. For efficient harvesting of crop, adequate moisture should be present in soil and crop should not be overripe. The tractor- mounted groundnut-digger shaker developed at the Punjab Agricultural University may be used for quick harvesting. Harvested plants are stacked for a few days for drying and stripped afterwards. After curing, collect the crop at one place and give 2-3 shakings and beatings daily for 2 to 3 days with a toothed rake or trangli to separate pods and leaves from the stalk. Collect the pods and leaves into a heap and winnow. Dried pods in sun for 4 or 5 days before storage.
On cloudy days removed pods and then immediately place them in an air drier@27-38 degree centigrade for 2 days or until pods dry to constant mass (6-8%).