Vigna radiata, Leguminaceae
Mungbean is one of the most important pulse crops which is grown in almost all parts of the country. It is primarily a crop of rainy season. However, with the development of early maturing varieties, it has proved to be an ideal crop for spring and summer seasons too.
Mungbean is an excellent source of high quality protein. It is consumed in different ways as dal, halwa, snack and so many other preparations. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is synthesized in sprouted seeds of mungbean with increment in riboflavin and thiamine. It has the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It is also used as green manure crop.Being a short duration crop it also provides an excellent green fodder to the animals.It fits well in various multiple and intercropping systems. After picking of pods, mungbean plants may be used as green fodder or can be incorporated as green manure.
The crop needs high temperature, less humidity and moderate rainfall of about 60-80 cm. Water logging is necessary for root development and nitrogen fixation during early vegetative stage. Crop is generally grown as rainfed crop.
It can be cultivated in wide range of soils. But gives best result when grown in well drained loamy to sandy-loam soils. Saline and water logged soils are not suitable for cultivation.
Optimum time for kharif sowing is first fortnight of July.
Optimum time for summer moong cultivation is from March to April.
For Kharif season, use seed rate of 8-9 kg/acre whereas for summer season used seed rate of 12-15 kg/acre.
Seed should be treated with Captan or Thiram @3 gm/kg of seed before sowing.
Dibble the seeds at a spacing of 30 x 10 cm. For bund crop dibble the seeds at 30 cm spacing.
Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels. To get rid off soil surface crusting apply lime at the rate of 2 t/ha along with FYM at 12.5 t/ha or composted coir pith at 12.5 t/ha to get an additional yield of about 15 – 20%.
Manures and fertilizers
Apply 8-10 tonnes of compost or FYM before 15 days of sowing. For mungbean, 15-20 kg nitrogen, 30-40 kg phosphorus should be applied at sowing time. It is advisable to use fertilizers on the basis of soil test and recommendations, normally 100 kg DAP/ha is enough for one hectare the fertilizer should be applied by drilling either at the time of sowing or just before sowing in such a way that they are placed about 2-3 cm below the seed. Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition and 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition
To keep field weed free, do one or two hoeing, first hoeing four week after sowing and second hoeing two week after first hoeing are required. To control weed chemically, apply Fluchloralin @ 600ml/acre or Trifluralin @ 800 ml/acre before sowing (take sowing on same day). Also after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin @ 1Ltr/acre in 100-200 Ltrs of water.
Moong is mainly grown as a kharif crop. If needed provide irrigation depending upon the climatic conditions.
For summer season crop, three to five irrigations are required depending upon soil type and climatic condition. For good yield stop irrigation 55 days after sowing.
Best time of harvesting when 85% of pods get matured. Over-ripening of pods should be avoided as produce may be lost due to shattering. Do harvesting with sickle. After harvesting carried out threshing. After threshing, seeds are cleaned and dried in the sunshine.
A well managed crop, as indicated above, may produce 8-10 quintals and in mixed crop yield 3-5 quintals grains per ha. In rainy season crop produce 10 qt/ha and in sumeer crop produce 12-15 qt. /ha. In mixed cropping 3-5 qt/ha.