RADISH CULTIVATION

Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae

Radish is one of the important herbaceous annual or biennial plants in the family Brassicaceae, grown for its edible taproot.

It is rich in carbohydrates, dietary fibers, fat, protein, thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, Mg, Ca, P, Zn & K. The commonly eaten portion of radish is the napiform taproot. Radish is mainly used in salads & several dishes

Botany

The radish plant has a short hairy stem and a rosette (ground level horizontal and circular leaves) of oblong shaped leaves which measure 5–30 cm (2–12 in) in length. The top leaves of the plant are smaller and lance-like. The taproot of the plant is cylindrical or tapering and commonly red or white in color. The radish plant produces multiple purple or pink flowers on racemes which produce 2–12 seeds. The reddish brown seeds are oval, and slightly flattened. Radish is generally grown as an annual plant, surviving only one growing season and can reach 20–100 cm (8–39 in) in height depending on the variety. Radish may also be referred to by the name of the cultivar and names may include Chinese radish, Japanese radish or oriental radish. The origin of the radish plant has not been determined but they are found growing native from the Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea.

Climate and Soil

Radish is primarily a crop for the temperate regions or a cool-season crop. Cool conditions stimulate vigorous growth. Short day length stimulates root development and high temperature stimulates the development of inflorescences. The crop requires well-drained, light, sandy, deep, soils, with pH 6–6.5. Heavy soils may bring about misshapen roots.

Season of sowing
In the hills, June –July and in the plains, September month is best suited for sowing.

Seed rate
It requires 10 kg/ha seeds for sowing.

Preparation of field
The land should be ploughed 2-3 times to get fine tilth and leveled y using levelers.

Spacing
Spacing of 15 x 10 cm spacing is followed

Irrigation
Plains
Irrigation is done once in a week

Drip irrigation
Install the drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5. Place the dripper in lateral tubes at an interval of 60cm and 50cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Application of fertilizers
Plains
Apply FYM at 25 t/ha and 25 kg/ha Urea, 100 kg/ha DAP and 50 kg/ha of MOP is given as basal dose and 25 kg N/ha after 30 days as top dressing.

Fertigation
Fertigation requirement :50:100:50kg of NPK / ha. Apply once in three days
Spacing : 30x15x10 cm in paired row system. A total of 10 rows is accommodated in one bed.

Weeding and hoeing can be done as and when necessary. At the second weeding, thinning of densely sown plants should be done.

Harvesting

It is done by pulling them from the soil. If the soil is hard, trowel or garden fork is used to lift the roots and cut the tops.

Yield

About 20 – 30 t/ha in 45 – 60 days can be obtained.

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