Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae
Jack fruit is one of the most important fruit crop of India. It is also known as Jamun. Its fruits are used for eating and seeds are used to prepare various drugs. Drugs prepared from Jamun plant are used to cure diabetes and increased blood sugar level. Flowers are yellow in color which is 5mm in diameter and having green fruits which turns crimson red at maturity. Fruits bear seeds which are 1-1.5cm long. Afghanistan, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia and India are the countries where Jamun plant can grow. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Assam and Rajasthan are major Jamun growing states in India.
Varieties and hybrids
Jathi, Ashada, RA-jamun, Kaatha, Badama, CISH-42, CISH-37, Konkan Bahadoli, Rie Jamun etc.
Climate and soil
It requires temperature of It is grown in variety of soils because of its hardy nature. They can be grown in sodic, saline, calcareous soils and can be grown in marshy soils. They can even survive in poorly drained soil. It gives best result when grown in fertile, deep loamy soil with good drainage system. Avoid cultivation in heavy soil and sandy soil.
It requires well prepared land for its cultivation. To bring soil to good level, plough land once. Then pits are dug and are filled with FYM in the ratio of 3:1. Transplantation of seedlings is done on raised beds.
It is planted in both spring and monsoon season. In spring season, it is planted in the month of February-March and in monsoon season it is planted in the month of July-August.
Soil depth and spacing
For seedling trees, spacing of 10m on both ways is recommended and for budded seedlings, spacing of 8m on both ways is recommended. The sowing depth should be 4-5cm. One seed per pit is used.
To protect crop from soil borne disease and pest, before sowing do seed treatment with Bavistin. After chemical treatment seeds are air dried and are used for sowing. The plant is raised mainly through grafting or seeds.
Sow Jamun seeds on raised beds having convenient length and are 4-5cm deep. After sowing beds are covered with thin cloth to retain moisture. To protect crop form virus attack the seeds are first treated with Bavistin. Germination starts within 10-15 days from sowing. Pits are dug before monsoon or spring season. Pits are dug with convenient measurements i.e. 1m x 1m x 1m. On these prepared pits transplanting is done. Transplanting is mainly done in next monsoon when the seedlings have 3-4 leaves. Water seedling beds 24hours before transplanting so that seedlings can be easily uprooted and be turgid at transplanting time.
Manures and Fertilizers
Apply well rotten FYM @ 20-25kg/plant/year in pre bearing period. The FYM dose should be increased when plants get mature i.e. 50-60kg/plant/year is given. Apply fertilizer dose of Nitrogen @ 500g/plant/year, phosphorous @ 600g/plant/year and potash @ 300g/plant/year is given to grown up trees.
Do frequent hand weeding from the base of plant to keep the field weed free. If weed left uncontrolled then it will affect the crop growth. Mulching is also an effective way to reduce soil temperature along with weed control.
Regular irrigation at regular interval of time is necessary for this plant. Light irrigation is necessary immediately after manuring. For young plant it requires 6-8 irrigations and for mature plant it requires 5-6 irrigations. Along with regular irrigations, once irrigation is required in the month of September – October for good bud growth and one is required in the month of May – June for good fruit growth. If drought occurs for long time then life-saving irrigation is given.
Harvesting is mainly done daily after the fruit matures. Harvesting is mainly done by the climb pickers. The fruit which is blackish purple in color is chosen for harvesting. While harvesting care should be taken to avoid any injury to fruit. For processing and seed extraction purpose, fully ripe fruits with soft flesh are used.