Trigonella foenum graecum, Leguminaceae
Fenugreek is also known as Methi. It is the most common vegetable grown throughout the country. Leaves are used for vegetable purpose and also have medicinal value. Seeds are used for flavouring purpose . They help to reduce blood sugar level and cholesterol too. It is also used for fodder purpose. Rajasthan is the most important fenugreek growing state in India. Other major fenugreek producing states are, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Varieties and hybrids
Kasuri, Methi No 47, CO 1, Hissar Sonali, Methi no 14. Pusa early bunching, Rajendra Kranti
Soil and Climate
It requires a temperature of 15-28 degrees and 50-75cm of rainfall for its cultivation. It can be grown in all type of soil rich in organic content but give best result when grown in well drained loamy or sandy loam soils. It can tolerate pH of range 5.3 to 8.2.
Plough the land for two – three times and bring soil to fine tilth. After then carry out planking operation to make land levelled and uniform. Add 10-15ton/acre of well decomposed cow dung at time of last ploughing. For sowing prepared flat beds of 3x2m.
Time of sowing
Last week of October and first week of November is best time for sowing.
Spacing and sowing depth
It requires line to line distance of 22.5 cm. Sow seeds on bed at depth of 3-4 cm. Broadcast the seeds by following distance and depth.
For sowing one acre land, seed rate of 12 kg/acre is used.
Fenugreek can be rotated with Kharif crops like Paddy, maize, green gram, fodder crops etc.
Before sowing, soak seeds in water for 8-12 hr. To protect seeds from soil born pest and diseases, treat them with Thiram@4 gm/kg of seed or Carbendazim 50%WP@3 gm/kg of seed. After chemical treatment, treat seeds with Azospirillum@300 gm/acre + Trichoderma Viride@20 gm/acre for 12 kg of seeds.
Manures and fertilizers
At time of sowing add, 5 kg of Nitrogen (12 kg of Urea), 8 kg of P2O5 (50 kg of Superphosphate) per acre. To attain fast growth 15-20 days after germination take spray of Triacontanol hormone@20ml/10 Ltr. Also one spray of NPK(19:19:19) fertilizer@75 gm/15 Ltr of water at 20 days of sowing helps in good and faster growth of crop. To obtained more yield, spray Brassinolide@50 ml/acre/150 Ltr water, 40-50 days after sowing. Take its second spray after 10 days. To protect plant from frost injury gives two sprays of Thiourea @150 gm/acre/150 Ltr of water at 45 & 65 days after sowing.
Give one or two hoeings operations to keep field weed free. Take first weeding 25-30days after sowing and second 30days after first weeding. To control weeds chemically, pre-plant application of Fluchloralin@800 ml/acre is recommended or for weed control spray with Pendimethaline@1.3 ltr/acre, by mixing in 200 ltr water within1-2 days of sowing at proper soil moisture.
Generally three to four irrigations on 30th day, 75th day, 85th and 105th day after sowing are required for optimum yield of fenugreek crop. Water stress at pod development and seed development stage leads to heavy loss in yield so avoid water stress at this stage. For quick germination of seed, give pre-sowing irrigation.
For vegetable purpose, harvesting of crop can be started from 20-25days after sowing whereas for grain purpose, harvesting is done 90-100days after sowing. For grain purpose, harvest when lower leaves turn yellow and starts shedding and pods turn to yellowish color. Use sickle for harvesting purpose.