Daucus carota, Apiaceae/ Umbrelliferaceae
Origin : Europe
Carrot is biennial, herbaceous plant of the that produces an edible taproot. Their shape ranges from globular to long, with lower ends blunt to pointed. Besides the orange-coloured roots, white, yellow and purple fleshed varieties can be seen. It is a great source of Vitamin A. Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are the major carrot growing states in India
Varieties and hybrids
Pusa kesar, Punjab carrot red, Pusa meghali, PC 34, Punjab black beauty etc.
Climate and soil
Carrot requires temperature of 10-23 degrees and rainfall of 75-100cm. It can be cultivated in deep, loose loamy soils. Heavy soils as well as very loose soils are not suitable for carrot cultivation. pH of soil should be 6.5
Plough the land thoroughly and make land weed and clods free. Add well decomposed FYM of 10 ton/acre and mix well in soils at time of land preparation. Avoid use of undecomposed or free FYM as it will leads to forking of fleshy roots.
August-September is best time for sowing local (desi) varieties of carrots whereas October-November month is ideal for cultivation of European varieties.
Soil depth and spacing
Use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 7.5 cm. For good growth, sow seeds at depth of 1.5 cm . For sowing use dibbling and broadcasting method.
For sowing of one acre land seed rate of 4-5 kg is sufficient. Before sowing soaked seeds in water for 12-24 hours. It will increase the germination percentage.
Manures and fertilizers
Along with well decomposed FYM apply Urea @ 55kg/acre, SSP @ 75kg/acre and MOP @ 50kg/acre in soil at time of sowing. Potash is required for good development of roots. Carry out interculture operation like weeding and hoeing to keep check on weed growth also to provide soil aeration.
After sowing, apply first irrigation, it will help in good germination. Depending upon soil type and climate, apply remaining irrigations at interval of 6-7 days in summer and 10-12 days interval in winter month. Overall carrot required three to four irrigations. Avoid excessive irrigation as it will leads misshape of roots and numerous hair growth. Stop irrigation two to three weeks before harvesting, It will help in increase in sweetness and taste of carrot.
Harvesting and yield
Carrot are harvested 90-100 days after sowing. Harvesting is done manually by uprooting plants. After harvesting remove green tops from carrots and then they are washed with water. We can obtain an average yield of 8-12 t/ha