CABBAGE CULTIVATION

Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Cruciferae

Cabbage is a leafy vegetable which is green or purple plant grown as annual vegetable crop. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C also it contains minerals like phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium and iron. It is a small, leafy biennial producing a compact globular mass of smooth or crincled leaves wrapped over each other known as head. Cabbage can be eaten as raw and in cook form.

Soil and climate

Cultivation of cabbage is done mainly on sandy to heavy soils rich in organic matter. Early crops prefer light soil while late crops thrive better on heavier soils due to retention of moisture. On heavy soils, plants grow more slowly and the keeping quality is improved. A pH range of 6.0-6.5 is considered as optimum for growing cabbage. Plants growing in saline soils are prone to diseases.

In India, cabbage is grown in large areas having a cool and moist climate. A temperature range of 15o-21o C is considered as optimum for growth and head formation of the crop. The intensity of flowering depends upon the age of the plants and the period for which they are exposed to low temperatures.

Varieties and hybids

Golden Acre, Pusa Mukta, Pusa Drumhead, K-1, Pride of India, Kopan hagen, Ganga, Pusa Synthetic, Shriganesh Gol, Hariana, Kaveri, Bajrang.

Land preparation

Plough the land thoroughly to get fine tilth. Give ploughing for 3-4times then do levelling of soil. Add well decomposed cow dung and mix well in soil at the time of last ploughing.

Season of sowing

September to October is ideal planting time in plain areas.

Soil depth and spacing

Use spacing of 45 x 45 cm for early season crop whereas for late maturing crop use spacing of 60 x 45 cm. Sow seeds at depth of 1-2 cm.

Seed rate

For sowing use seed rate of 200-250 gm per acre is required

Seed treatment

Treat the seeds with with Carbendazim 50%WP@3gm/kg seed.

Sowing

For Sowing dibbling method and transplanting methods can be used. Sow the seeds in nursery when seedlings are ready to transplant within 25-30 days after sowing. For transplantation use three to four weeks old seedling.

Manures and Fertilizers

Apply well decomposed FYM @40 t/acre in soil along with Nitrogen@50kg, Phophorus@25kg and Potash@25kg in form of Urea @ 110kg, SSP @155kg and MOP @ 40kg. Apply whole quantity of cow dung, SSP and MOP and half quantity of Urea before transplanting. Apply remaining quantity of Urea four week after transplanting as top dressing. 

To get better flower (Curd) set and to obtain good yield, spray Water Soluble Fertilizer (19:19:19)@5-7gm/ltr water during the early plant growth. 40days after transplanting take spray of 12:61:00@4-5gram + micronutrients@2.5 to 3 gram + Boron@1gm per Ltr water. To improve curd quality, apply Water Soluble Fertilizer 13:00:45@8-10gm/Ltr of water at the time of curd development.

Weed Management

Apply Pendimethalin@1Ltr/acre four day before transplanting of seedlings followed  by one hand weeding after herbicide application.

Irrigation

Give first irrigation immediately after transplanting. Depending upon the soil, climatic condition, apply irrigation at interval of 10-15 days during winter season. Give adequate quantity of water to young seedling in vegetative stage. Heavy watering after head formation causes cracking of heads.

Harvesting

Harvesting can be done when head reaches full size and have firm texture. In case of high demand the crop is harvested early. Harvesting is done with help of knife.

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