Scientific Name: Triticum aestivum

Family: Poaceae

  • Wheat is originated from South West Asia
  • Wheat ranks first in the world among the cereals both in respect of area and production. So wheat is called as King of Cereals.
  • In India wheat is the second most crop in area and production after rice.
  • Wheat contains a spongy protein called ‘Gluten’ which is essential for Baking.
  • Wheat protein is rich in Niacin and Thiamine contents.
  • Major wheat growing states in India are Uttar Prasesh, Punjab, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.


  1. Common bread wheat or Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

It is hexaploid (2n=42) in nature.

It occupies about 87% of wheat area

It is good for chapathi making and bakery products.

It is introduced in India by Borlaug from Mexico, hence called Mexican dwarf wheat and responsible for green revolution.

  • Durum/Macaroni wheat (Triticum durum)

It is tetraploid in nature (2n=28)

Used for suji and semya preparation.

This occupies about 12% of wheat area particularly in central and southern india in rainfed conditions.

  • Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicocum)

It is tetraploid in nature(2n=28)

Occupies about 1% wheat area and is mainly grown in Gujrat, Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka and TamilNadu.

Suitable for preparation of South Indian dish like Uppumav.

  • Diploid species

Triticum monococcum, 2n=14(deploid)

Triticum aegiloploid, 2n=14(diploid)


Lerma Rojo 64-A        Sonaro-64

Chotti lerma                Girija

HD-2009                       Sonalika

Kalyan sona                 Sujata

HD-2329                      Sonaro-64


It is a long day plant.

It requires cool and moist weather during the vegetative growth period and warm and dry weather during grain formation.


It requires clay loam soils with good texture and moderate water holding capacity.

Land Preparation

Plough the land twice with an iron plough and two to three times with cultivator and prepare the land to get a fine tilth.

Apply 12.5 t/ha of FYM or compost to the field.

Form beds of size 10 m2 or 20 m2 and irrigation channels are to be provided sufficiently. 

Seed Treatment

Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram at 2 g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing.

Seed rate and spacing

For normal sowing: 100kg/ha

For broadcasting: 125kg/ha

For dibbling: 25-30kg/ha

22.5*10cm spacing should be followed.

 Fertilizers and Manures

Apply fertilizers like Urea at 120kg/ha, SSP at 60kg/ha and MOP at 40kg/ha.


Half dose of urea(60kg) along with full SSP and DAP should be added as a bosal dose and remaining half urea(60Kg) should be applied as top dressing

Under rainfed condition, full dose of NPK should be placed into the soil before sowing.


1st fortnight of November(15th of November) is the best time of sowing

Draw the lines 20 cm apart and sow the seeds continuously after application of fertilizers to a depth of 5 cm.

 Avoid deep sowing.

Weed Management

We can observe weeds like Polaris minor, Avena fatua, Chenapodium album, Melilotus spp etc in the wheat field.

  • Spray Isoproturon 800 g/ha as pre-emergence spraying 3 days after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 35th day after sowing.
  • Apply 2,4 D at 500ml/ha as post emergent herbicide at 30-35 days after sowing.


The crop requires 4 – 6 irrigations depending on the soil type and rainfall. Wheat crop requires minimum of 5 irrigations at the following critical stages.
            1. Immediately after sowing
            2. Crown root intiation : 15-20 DAS
            3. Active tillering stage : 35-40 DAS
            4.Flowering stage        : 50-55 DAS
            5.Grain filling stage      : 70-75 DAS
Crown root initiation and flowering are the most critical stages. Water stagnation should be avoided at the time of germination.


Harvesting is done when the grains become hard and straw dries up. Later Trashing and Winnowing of grains is done by using mechanical threshers and winnowers.


The average yield of wheat is about 12-14 quintals/ha.

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