It is a practice of removal of plant parts to develop a proper shape and to provide a strong framework/ support to bear a heavy crop load.
We can follow different types of training in Grapes
- BOWER SYSTEM
About 80% of vineyard area in India is under Bower system.
Here only the best shoot growing vertically is allowed to grow along the stake provided upto the bower height.
- KNIFFIN SYSTEM
It is less expensive than Bower system
Also called ESPALIER SYSTEM/ 4- CANE SYSTEM
It is a method wherein a trunk is carried out to the upper two supporting wires along with the modified fruiting canes tied so that the bearing branches are allowed to hang down.
- TELEPHONE SYSTEM
It is as expensive as KNIFFIN SYSTEM
It is also known as 6- CANE SYSTEM
T-Trellis is used in the system of training.
- HEAD SYSTEM
It is very simple and inexpensive technique.
It is suitable for less vigorous (cannot be grown forcefully) cultivars like Beauty Seedless, Delight and Perlette in North India and Gulabi in South India.
Spacing – 1.8*1.2- 1.5m
Plant population- 4000-4500 plants /ha
It refers to the removal of plant parts especially shoots, roots, buds etc. to obtain a better and qualitative yield.
Methods of Pruning
It is the method in which there is a selective or complete removal of plant part is done so that there will be higher vegetative growth.
Higher vegetative growth after thinning
- RINGING OR GIRDLING
In this method a circular ring measuring about 3cm in length is removed to increase the bearing by enhancing the photosynthesis in upward portion of the plant.
- SHOOT PINCHING
It is done during growing as well as in fruiting season in Peninsular India but in North India it is only carried during fruiting season.
In this method a part of the shoot is removed in order to increase the branching and vegetative growth.
Main shoot contains 7-8 leaf stage
Higher vegetative growth after shoot pinching
- SINGLE PRUNING
It is mostly adopted in North India during Jan-Feb
- DOUBLE PRUNING/ BACK PRUNING/ FOUNDATION PRUNING/ WINTER PRUNING
It is mostly adopted in Maharashtra, North Interior Karnataka in case of Thompson seedless and Anab-e-shahi varieties.
Pruning in Sept- Oct is called “Forward Pruning” or “Fruit Pruning”.
Here the mature shoots are pruned to 7-8 buds.