Soyabean farming and management

Soyabean seeds

CROP IMPROVEMENT

SEASON AND VARIETIES

Adipattam (June – July) 
Purattasipattam 
(Sep. – Oct.) 
Masipattam 
(February – March)
Co 1 (Irrigated), Co 2, Co(Soy) 3
Rice fallowsCo 1, Co 2*

 DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIETY

VarietyCo 1Co 2Co (Soy) 3
ParentageRe-selection from a Thailand varietyCross derivative of UGM 21 x JS 335Cross derivative of UGM 69 x JS 335
Year of release198019952005
50% flowering37 days30-40 days39 – 41 days
Duration (days)90-10080-9090-100
Grain yield (Kg/ha)
Rainfed10801340
Irrigated164016501700
Height (cm)5830 – 4053.5
Branches65 – 6
Flower colourPinkPink to purplePink
Colour of grainCreamCreamy yellowCreamy yellow with brown hilum
100 seed weight (g)12.513 – 1410.95 – 11.75

MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATIONS

1. FIELD PREPARATION

      Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels.

SEED RATE
      CO 1 – 80 kg/ha. Optimum plant population 6,66,000/ha. 
      CO 2 (irrigated) Pure crop : 60-70 Kg/ha; Inter crop : 25 Kg/ha 
                CO(Soy) 3 Pure crop : 50 Kg/ha

2. SEED TREATMENT WITH FUNGICIDES

Treated soyabean seed
a)Treat the seeds with Carbendezim or  Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing or with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
b)Coat the seeds with ZnSO4 @ 300 mg/kg using 10% maida solution as adhesive (250 ml/ kg) or gruel and arappu leaf powder (250 g/kg) as carrier to increase the field stand.

3. SEED TREATMENT WITH  BIOFERTILIZER

a)Treat the seeds atleast 24 hours before sowing.
 Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Rhizobial culture (COS-1) and 3 packets (600 g/ha)  of Phosphobacteria developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out apply 10 packets of Rhizobium (2000 g/ha)  and 10 packets (2000 g)  of Phosphobacteria with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.  Dry the bacterial culture treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes before sowing.

4. FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  • Apply 20 kg N and 80 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha 40 kg of S as gypsum (220 kg/ha) /  ha as basal dressing. Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition      
  • Foliar spray of NAA 40 mg/litre and Salicylic acid 100 mg/litre once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter 

Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/litre or urea 20 g/litre once at flowering and another at 15 days thereafter

5. SOWING

Dibble the seeds at a depth of 2 – 3 cm adopting a spacing of 30 x 5 cm. In Erode district, Soybean + Castor (60 cm apart) cropping system gives high net return.

6. WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigate immediately after sowing. Give life irrigation on the 3rd day. Further irrigations at intervals of 7 – 10 and 10 – 15 days during summer and winter season respectively may be given depending on soil and weather conditions. Soybean is very sensitive to excess moisture and the crop is affected,  if water stagnates in the fields. The crop should not suffer due to water stress from flowering to maturity. To alleviate moisture stress spray of either Kaolin 3% or liquid paraffin at 1% on the foliage. In Erode district Soybean + castor with irrigation at 0.60 IW/CPE ratio (i.e.) once in 10 to 12 days is recommended to realise maximum benefits.

7. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Alachlor may be applied to the irrigated crop at 4 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 3.3 litre ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
  • If herbicide spray is not given two hand weedings on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
  • Imazythypur @ boqaitha may be applied as post emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.

8 HARVESTING Yellowing of leaves and shedding, indicate the maturity of the crop. Cut the entire plant when most of the pods have turned yellow, drying and processing

RAINFED SOYABEAN

  • VARIETIES : CO 1, ADT 1
  • SEASON : The crop can be grown in South-West and North-East monsoon seasons. The middle of July is the optimum time of sowing for rainfed Soyabean in North Western Zone.

4.FERTILIZER APPLICATION

Fertilisers
  • Apply NPK as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available adopt blanket recommendation of 20:40:20:20 NPKS kg/ha,  if adequate moisture is available. 
  • Apply entire dose of N, P ,K and S as basal.

5. SPACING

      Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 5 cm between plants in the row.

6. SOWING

      Dibble or drill the seeds.

7. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Alachlor may be applied to the irrigated crop at 4 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 3.3 litre ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
  • If herbicide spray is not given two hand weedings on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
  • Imazythypur may be applied as post emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.

SOYABEAN IN RICE FALLOWS

     Soyabean can be sown in rice fallows from middle of January to middle of March. Seeds can be dibbled at 75 kg/ha.

SPECIAL SITUATIONS

  • Optimum time of sowing Soyabean CO 1 – 2nd fortnight of June in Kharif
  • Intercropping of Soyabean CO 2 in Sugarcane is recommended for North Western Zone.
  • Intercropping of Soyabean in coconut gardens of more than 10 years is recommended.
  • Vermipelleting (50 g/kg) and adopting spacing of 30 x 10 cm and two foliar sprays of 2% DAP during flowering is recommended to achieve higher yield.

Pest management

Armyworms:

Armyworm – in Soyabean


Armyworm include , beet armyworm , westeren striped ary worm.
Symptoms
Singular, or closely grouped circular to irregularly shaped holes in foliage; heavy feeding by young larvae leads to skeletonized leaves; shallow, dry wounds on fruit; egg clusters of 50-150 eggs may be present on the leaves; egg clusters are covered in a whitish scale which gives the cluster a cottony or fuzzy appearance; young larvae are pale green to yellow in color while older larvae are generally darker green with a dark and light line running along the side of their body and a pink or yellow underside
these insects can go through 3-5 generations a year.
Management:
Organic methods of controlling armyworms include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis

chemical methods:
Emamectin benzote – (spray it in single row , and in widespred for long result.)
Flubendimide (Takumi)
Chlorantriniliprole (Coragen)
Novoluron + Emamectin Bnezoate (Medad- parijat Industries) barazide- Adama

Cucumber beetles:

Dotted beetles


Western striped cucumber beetle, Western spotted cucumber beetle.
Symptoms
Stunted seedling; damaged leaves, stems and/or petioles; reduced plant stand; plants may exhibit symptoms of bacterial wilt; scars on fruit caused by beetle feeding damage; adult beetles are brightly colored with either a green-yellow background and black spots or alternating black and yellow stripe

Management:
Abamectin
Azadiractin
Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen)
Novaluron
Spinetoram
Spinosad (tracer)

Soybean Aphid:

Soyabean aphid

Heavy infestations can result in a covering of sooty mold, yellow and wrinkled leaves, stunted plants, and aborted pods leading to significant yield loss of 40% or more. It can also transmit plant viruses such as Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus.

Soybean aphid colony size and infestation levels are influenced by ecological factors such as temperature and biological control (discussed below), but also by their nutritional feeding environment. Like most aphids, soybean aphid growth is limited by the nutritional quality of its host plant. The limiting component of the soybean aphids diet is often nitrogen, which has a relatively low concentration within the phloem.

management:
seed tratement with Thiamethoxam
spraying Dimethoate 30ec @ 2ml/lt
spraying lamdacyhalothrin @ 0.5ml/lt spraying with thimethaxom. spraying with Quinolphos .

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