Pumpkin cultivation and management.

Pumpkin is a popular rainy season crop in India. Its majorly grown in kharif season i.e mansoon and summer season.

India is the second largest country in the world to produce pumpkin .
Here are some local names fro pumpkin:
Kumbalakai- kannada
Gummadi kaya- telgu
Poosaniki- tamil
Mathanga-malayalam
Lal bhopala- marathi
Kaddu – hindi
Kollaano velo -Gujrati

Pumpkin seeds Pumkin flower

varieties of pumpkin in India
1)Arka suryamukhi
2)Ambili
3)Arka chandan
4)Saras
5)Suvarna
6)Sooraj

varieties of pumkin according to Brands
1) MAHYCO -MPH-01
2) SUKHINO – ANJALI F1
3) KNOW YOU – AADI F1

Agro-Climatic Condition
Basically, Pumpkins are the very warm vegetable, which can also resist in cold temp. Because of plentiful uses and benefits of Pumpkins fruits, are cultivated all over the world. There are many types of Pumpkins, that can grow in various types of climatic conditions.

However, a temp. ranging between 20 °C to 30 °C is considered as the ideal temp. for growing pumpkins for its best vegetative growth.

Note that growing pumpkins in too hot and in the too cool region is not beneficial because Pumpkins plants are very sensitive to frost conditions and pumpkins seeds do not grow well in the cold soil. Also, at higher atmospheric temp. sometimes male flowers predominant on the female flowers, resulting as lower fruits production in that season.

Soil Requirement
can be grown on wide variety of soils. Whatever, A soil with sandy loam along with good drainage power and all essential organic matter is supposed to be the best soil for pumpkins.

Soil ph ranging between 5.5 to 7.5 is considered as the best ph for growing pumpkins.

Feild preparation

To obtain a higher amount of production, your soil should be prepared a well for pumpkins cultivation. So, for preparing the soil for pumpkins, bring your soil in fine tilth form. Also, it should be leveled as well.

Make sure that that your selected field must have an assured source of water.

Rows should be forrowed at the size of 4.5m x 2.0m.and apply 2tns of FYM / acre to the top soil
Planting Season

Pumpkins can grow all around the year, where there is a good source of water is available. However, generally two crops of this vegetable can be obtained;

In the time period of January to March and September to December.sowing can also be started after first few showers.

In the cooler region, the best time to plant pumpkin seeds is at the end of May & for cultivation in the warm area, this should be planted in the mid-Jul

Field of fresh pumpkin

Growing and Planting Pumpkins
Method Of Propagation
Pumpkins are mainly propagated with the help of pumpkins seed.

How to Plant Pumpkin Seeds
Pumpkins seeds do not germinate in too cold temp. For planting Pumpkins, seeds should be sown directly on the main field. Planting on the raised bed encourages drainage to avoid the problem of constant wetness of Pumpkins roots which invites numbers of pest, insects, and diseases.

Generally, this crop is cultivated mainly on hills and surrounding area. So, for planting pumpkins in such area, plant about 2 to 4 seeds per hill. Seed should be sown at about 2.5 depth for best growth. Also, after seedling pumpkins, they should be thin to 1 plant per each hill lately.

Spacing
In planting Pumpkins, spacing varies in accordance with cultivar & vine size. For obtaining more production, grow a short-vined or bush pumpkin variety.

Planting them by keeping spacing about one meter, between the plants along with spacing rows about 1.5 to 2 meters is considered as best for growing pumpkins commercially.

Seed Rate
Generally, about 2 kg of pumpkins seeds is sufficient enough for farming on one-hectare land to earn huge production.

Irrigation in Pumpkin Farming
Timely irrigation with a proper irrigation system is the main cause of good plant growth and better production. So, following is the guide for you about watering Pumpkins. Learn it!!

First Irrigation should be done just after the sowing seeds on the field. Then after, give water at an interval of 3 to 4 days in the initial stage of growth. Take care while flowering & fruiting stage. At this, give water on alternate days.

If you have the facility of good irrigation, then giving water with furrow method is best for pumpkins cultivation. But, if you are cultivating pumpkins in such area, where there is a shortage of water, drip irrigation for pumpkins farming is the ideal one. Also, do not water in monsoon. Note that good drainage capacity of the soil is an essential thing during heavy rains and floods.

Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Pumpkin Farming
Timely application of suitable manure and fertilizers directly enhance the production. In pumpkin farming, apply manure and fertilizers in balance doses to obtain higher yield. For this, about 50 tonnes of ordinary manure is to be applied while soil preparation, generally in the last plow to the topmost soil.

Application of Nitrogen and Potassium is beneficial in increasing yield. So, apply about 50 to 60 kg of Nitrogen along with 30 kg of Potash at land preparation. Take care while application of NItrogen. It should be applied in two equal doses; 1/2 at land preparation, and another one at about one month o the plantation.

Pest and Diseases in Pumpkin Farming
Pumpkins are very prone to pests and diseases, and numbers of pest and diseases attacks on its crop. It is essential to prevent them to obtain a good quality and high yield from pumpkin cultivation. Crop rotation is the best way to minimize pests and diseases. Also, avoid growing pumpkins on a field, used for planting any cucurbit crops earlier.

Pumpkin Pests
The following are the common pest of the pumpkin crops along with their symptoms and also controlling measures.
Pumpkin flies(FRUIT FLY)

Adult pumkin fly

Their brown markings make them difficult to spot, and the first indication of their presence is usually puncture marks on the fruit.

These makepump[kin hallow and non weightable.

management: Use a fruit fly trap (see below) and spray young fruit with Bioneem. The incidence of stings can be severe in mid summer if the pumpkin fly populations are not controlled early. Start a regular spray programme with Bioneem every seven days when the plant starts flowering. If a serious problem develops, combine Pyrol and Bioneem at 5 ml each per litre of water and spray during the late afternoon when the pollinators are resting.

you can have control on flies by spraying chemicals like
1)cypermethrin.
2)Deltamethrin.
3)lamda cyhalothrin


Aphids

In pumpkins they suck juices from the leaves and fruits and transmit virus mosaic pathogens. The pathogen causes a serious malformation on leaves of pumpkins and summer squash leading to poor yield and reduction in fruit quality.

Management
Acetamiprid 0.047 to 0.075 lb ai/a. . Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 5 applications or 0.5 lb ai/a per season.
Alpha-cypermethrin (Fastac EC) at 0.02 to 0.025 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 7 days. Do not exceed 0.075 lb ai/a per season.
Azadirachtin (Neemix 4.5)-PHI 0 days. REI 4 hr. See label for rates. Acts slowly; apply early. Thorough coverage and repeated applications are necessary.
Bifenthrioun at 0.05 to 0.1 lb ai/a. PHI 3 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.3 lb ai/a per season. Do not make more than two applications after bloom. Retreatment interval 7 days.
FLonicamid ulala 50wG) at 0.062 to 0.089 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.267 lb ai/a or three applications per season. Retreatment interval 7 days.
Imidacloprid (Admire ) at 0.25 to 0.38 lb ai/a soil or 0.016 lb ai/10,000 plants for planthouse. PHI 21 days.
Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) at 1 to 2% solution. Potassium salts of fatty acids. See label for gal/a rates. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr.
Lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (dhaak ZC) at 0.072 lb ai/a. PHI 1 day. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.18 lb ai/a of lambda-cyhalothrin or 0.172 lb ai/a of thiamethoxam per season.
Tebuconazole/lambda cyhalothrin at 0.16 lb ai/a. PHI 7 days. REI 24 hr. Retreatment interval 10 days. Do not exceed 0.48 lb ai/a tebuconazole and 0.18 lb ai/a lambda cyhalothrin.Thiamethoxam (Actara) at 0.023 to 0.047 lb ai/a. PHI 0 days. REI 12 hr. Retreatment interval 5 days. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai/a per season.
thiamethoxam/chlorantraniliprole at 0.196 to 0.257 lb ai/a applied to the soil. PHI 30 days. REI 12 hr. Do not exceed 0.172 lb ai of thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb ai of chlorantraniliprole per acre per growing season.

Thrips

THRIPS THRIPS ATTACK ON LEAVES

DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST
Thrips are small, slender insects with mouthparts developed primarily for sucking and rasping. The adults measure about 0.04 inch (1 mm) in length and have two pairs of fringed wings, carried lengthwise over the back.

DAMAGE
Western flower thrips is both a beneficial insect (it feeds on spider mites) and a pest (it can damage flowers and shoot tips during the early growth stages or occasionally, if populations are severe, immature fruit). Both the young and adults cause damage by rasping and puncturing surface cells. This results in a silvering, and sometimes deformation, of the leaves: edges of leaves tend to curl downward.

MANAGEMENT
Discing weeds before they flower can lessen attraction of the field to thrips. Do not disc after weeds have flowered, as thrips will move to crop plants. Monitor with yellow or blue sticky traps placed in field from seedling through flowering period to determine the magnitude of the thrips population. Be sure to determine that thrips-related damage is occurring and consider treating only if the population is causing serious damage to shoot tips, flowers, or fruit. Unnecessary treatments can cause spider mite buildup.

CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT
1.Spinoterm (DELEGATE)
2.Spinosad (TRACER)
3.Methomyl
4.Dimethoate
5.Fipronil
6.Lambdacyhalothrin

Cucumber beetles:

Banded cucumber beetle

Spotted cucumber beetle

Symptoms
Stunted seedling; damaged leaves, stems and/or petioles; reduced plant stand; plants may exhibit symptoms of bacterial wilt; scars on fruit caused by beetle feeding damage; adult beetles are brightly colored with either a green-yellow background and black spots or alternating black and yellow stripes
Beetles overwinter in soil and leaf litter and emerge from soil when temperatures begin to reach and exceed 12.7°C (55°F)
Management
Monitor new planting regularly for signs of beetle; floating row covers can be used to protect the plants from damage but will need to be removed at bloom to allow pollinate plants.
chemical management:
1)Lamdacyhalothrin
2)Dimethoate
3)Bifenthrion
4)cypermethrin

Pumpkins Diseases

Alternaria leaf blight

Alternaria leaf blight


Symptoms
Small, yellow-brown spots with a yellow or green halo which first appear on the oldest leaves; as the disease progresses, lesions expand and becone large necrotic patches, often with concentric patternation; lesions coalesce, leaves begin to curl and eventually die. Disease is prevalent in growing areas where temperatures are high and rainfall is frequent.
Management
Cucurbits should be rotated with another crop every 2 years to reduce levels of inoculum; crop debris should be removed from the field as quickly as possible after harvest or plowed deeply into the soil; applications of appropriate protective fungicides can help to slow the development of the disease; water plants from the base rather than from above to reduce periods of leaf wetness which are conducive to the development and spread of disease
chemical management:
1.Chlorothalonil (KAVACH)
2.Mancozeb (M-45)
3.Fludioxonil (MAXIM)
4.Pydiflumetofen (ADEPIDYN™)
5.Oxythiapiprolin (ORONDIS)

Alternaria leaf spot

Alternaria Leaf Spot of Cucurbits


Symptoms
Initial symptoms appear as necrotic flecks on leaves with chlorotic halos; as the disease progresses, the flecks grow into spots which may join together into large, roughly circular lesions; if infestation is severe, leaves begin to turn yellow and die
Pathogen survives between growing season on crop debris

Management
Crops debris should be removed from the field or plowed deeply into the soil after harvest; applications of appropriate protective fungicides can hep reduce the incidence of the disease
Chemical management:

  1. Copper oxychloride

Downy mildew

DOWNY MILDEW IN PUMPKIN

Downy mildew
The pathogen does not survive Midwest winters because it requires green, living plant tissues. That means the fungus-like organism only overwinters .The wind carries downy mildew spores to new, living hosts in the Midwest as early as July, and sometimes not at all. Since pumpkins are grown until relatively late in the growing season, this crop is often affected more than other cucurbits.

Symptoms
Dead or dying leaves; yellow to brown lesions on the upper side of leaves; purple growth developing on the underside of leaves
Disease emergence favors cool nights and high moisture
Management
Do not overcrowd plants; avoid overhead irrigation, water plants from base; apply appropriate fungicide
Chemical control:
1. chlorothalonil
2. Mancozeb
3. Fluazinam
4. Chlorothalonil + oxathiapiprolin (orondis)
5. chlorothalonil + zoxamide (zing)

POWDERY MILDEW


This disease does not require leaf wetness for disease initiation or spread.

At vine touch, begin systemic fungicide applications at bush stage of pumpkin growth. Protect pumpkin vines until approximately 21 days from last harvest. Some pumpkin varieties have partial resistance to powdery mildew.
Symptoms
White powdery mold on stems, leaves and petioles; stems may be weakened
Disease emergence favors periods of dry weather
Management
Plant in sites with good air circulation and sun exposure; do not overcrowd plants; sanitize equipment regularly
CHEMICAL CONTROL:
Difenocoazole (score)
Penthiopyrad
flutianil 1.67sc
Metrafenone 500 sc
Fluopyram + trifloxystrobin
Azoxystrobin + difenaconazole

Bacterial wilt;

Bacterial wilt


Primarily a disease of cucumber and melon. Pumpkins and squash are only affected when striped and spotted beetles feed on the plants at or before the 5 true leaf stage. Disease control depends on control of striped and spotted cucumber beetles. See insect section.
Symptoms
Wilting of individual runners or entire plant; leaves and stems of affected parts turn dark green; wilting is irreversible; affected parts turn necrotic
Spread by striped or spotted cucumber beetles; disease can be confirmed by cutting the stem and slowly pulling the two ends apart – infected plants will ooze strings of bacterial exudate
Management
Control cucumber beetle populations on plants; hand pick adult beetles and destroy; soil and foliar application of appropriate insecticides may help to control populations
chemical control:
Drenching of
Ridomilgold and streptocyclene hydrate.

Pumpkin Harvesting


Pumpkin harvesting season starts when the stem of the plant begin to shrivel. However, harvesting may vary from cultivar to cultivar and also the market demand. It is better to operate harvesting on the basis of market demand in their tender age. Pumpkin fruit or vegetable should be harvested, when they attain deep solid woody color and hard. Harvesting at this stage will also help in collecting some seeds for further cultivation.

Usually, collect those fruits or vegetable manually by hand. For this, you can make use of a knife for collecting them.Try to cut them keeping about 5 cm stock with fruit. Also, any unhealthy fruits should be destroyed.

Yield
Production of your pumpkin farming or cultivation depends on numbers of factors like cultivar, climate condition, proper care, and management of your farm, application of manure and fertilizer….

However, all these factors are discussed above very well. Learn them deeply and earn a huge fruit production from it. Since Pumpkins have great market demand all around the year. Normally, about 20 to 40 tonnes of fruit can be easily obtained from this commercial farming.

For more details and support contact the support team!!!!

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