PLANT AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN BENGAL GRAM

. DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES

VarietyCO 3CO 4
ParentagePureline selection from Maharashtra collectionCross derivative of ICC 42 x
ICC 12237
Year of release19861998
50% flowering (days)35 – 4040
Duration (days)8585
Grain yield (Kg/ha)  
Grain yield (Kg/ha)  
Rainfed10001150
Height (cm)25 – 3035 – 40
Branches3 – 53 – 5
Flower colourLight pink & veinedLight pink & veined
Colour of grainLight brownBrown
100 seed weight (g)30-3230 – 32

MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATIONS

1. FIELD PREPARATION

Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply  12.5 t FYM/ha

2. SEED TREATMENT

Treat the seeds with Carbendezim (or) Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing (or) with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.

The above seed treatment will protect the seedlings from seed borne pathogens in the early stages.

SEED RATE

  • CO 3 – 90 kg/ha.
  • CO 4 – 75 kg/ha.

As a pure crop to have an optimum plant population 325000 / ha

. SEED TREATMENT WITH BIOFERTILIZER

Treat the  seeds with  one  packet  (200  g/ha) of  Rhizobial  culture (200 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out apply 10packets of Rhizobium (2 kg/ha) and 10 packets(2 kg) of Phosphobacteriawith 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing. Dry the biofertilizer treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes before sowing.


4. FERTILIZER APPLICATION

a)  Apply fertilizers basally before sowing.
    Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg K2O +10 kg S*/ha
    Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O + 20 kg S*/ha
               *Note : Applied in the form of gypsum,  if Single Super Phospate is not applied as a source of phosphorus
b)   Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition     

5. SOWING

Dibble the seeds by adopting the spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm.

6. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 2.5 litres on 3rd day after sowing using Backpack/ Knapsack/Rocker sprayer fitted with flat fan nozzle using 500 litres of water for spraying one ha followed by one hand weeding on 25 – 30 days after sowing.
  • If herbicide is not applied give two hand weedings on 15th and 30th day after sowing.

7. INTERCROPPING IN BENGALGRAM

Bengalgram in paired row planting with one or two rows of Coriander as intercrop would give the highest return. Wheat can also be intercropped in deep black cotton soil in Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Namakkal and Dharmapuri districts.

Other Management practices

  • As in crop management technique

PEST MANAGEMENT –Gram Pod Borer : Helicoverpa armigera

CIRCULAR BORE HOLE

Identification of the pest Eggs – are spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, laid singly  Pupa – brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris Adult – light pale brownish yellow stout moth.  Forewing grey to pale brown with V shaped speck. Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin.


Symptoms of damage Skeletinization of leaves – feeding chlorophyll only leaving veins by young larvae Defoliation Feeds flower and green pods

In green pods – make circular holes and feed the grains and make empty.

Management ETL: 2 early instar larvae/plant 5-8 eggs/plant Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha Bird perches 50/ha Hand picking of grown up larvae and blister beetles Ha NPV 1.5 x1012 POB/ha with teepol (1 ml/lit.) Apply any one of the following (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Dichlorvos 76 WSC 625 ml/ha Neem seed kernel extract 5% (31.0 kg/ha) twice followed by Triazophos 40 EC 780 ml/ha Neem oil 12.5 lit./ha Phosalone 35 EC 1.25 lit./ha (Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be made when the larvae were upto third instar)
crop Protection : Pests of Bengal Gram
Symptoms of damage Skeletinization of leaves and the plant becomes whitish The larvae feed on leaf buds, flowers, tender pods and developing seeds. Ragged and irregular pod. (This is in contrast with the neat, and round hole, characteristic of pod borer damage.) Identification of the pest Moths have typically patterned forewings.

The larva 25 mm long is green semiloopers

Management ETL 10% affected parts Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa. Early sowing, short duration varieties. Avoid closer plant spacing. Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest. Install Bird perches @ 50/ha. Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population. Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times. Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage). Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.

Termites: Odontotermes obesus 

Symptoms of damage Termite bores into the roots and stem. Due to the bore the plants soon dries.

Attack may continue to the standing crop also especially during the period of drought

Identification of the pest These are social insects, live in termitaria, in distinct castes, workers, kings and queen. Eggs are laid on plants and in the soil. ‘Worker’ are small (4 mm) and have a soft, white body and a brown head.
Management Frequent intercultural operations and irrigation before sowing. Field sanitation, timely disposal of crop stables and undecomposed plant parts. Undecomposed FYM or composed should not be used Two-three deep ploughing could also help control this pest. Destroy the termite bunds in and around the field and kill the queen and complimentary form.

Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 4ml/kg of seed.

Alternaria blight: Alternaria alternata

Symptom
The disease occurs during the flowering stage of the crop. Leaves are infected most. Shedding of lower leaves generally occurs in the infected plant. The lesions are seen on leaflets as water soaked, small, circular and purple in colour. Infected pods turn blackish in colour. Infected seeds get shriveled’.


Management The plants should be planted distantly. Avoid excessive vegetative growth. Intercrop with linseed. Avoid excessive irrigation. Use compact varieties. Use Mancozeb at the rate of 2.5g/lit or Use Carbendazim at 1g/lit

Ascochyta blight: Ascochyta rabiei

Symptom
All plant parts are affected. Symptoms appear on leaves as water soaked lesions. Symptoms include smaller circular brown spots on leaves. Under favorable conditions, these spots enlarge rapidly and coalesce, blighting the leaves and buds. In case of severe infection, the entire plant dries up suddenly. The lesions are also developed on stems and petioles. Late infections result in shriveled and infected seed. The disease is seed borne in nature. Left over debris in the fields serve as a source. Wet and warm weather, and dense crop canopy are conducive to the spread of the disease


Management Sow disease-free seed. Follow rotation crop. Intercrop with wheat, barley, mustard Seed treatment with Carbendazim @ 1g/kg of seed. or Hot water seed treatment (52 C for 10 min) to lower the infestation. Spray the crop with Mancozeb @ 2.5g/lit if noticed during the growth period.
or Spray Wettable sulphur at the rate of 2.3g/lit of water.      


  Botrytis gray mold: Botrytis cineria Symptom


Lack of pod setting is the first indication. Under favourable conditions, foliage shows symptoms and plants often die in patches. Shedding of flowers and leaves, covered with spore mass can be seen. Lesions on stem are 10-30 mm long and girdle the stem fully. Tender branches break off at the point where the gray mold has caused rotting. Affected flowers turn in to a rotting mass. Lesions on the pod are water-soaked and irregular. On infected plants, the pods contain either small, shriveled seeds or no seeds at all.


Management Avoid excessive vegetative growth. Intercrop with linseed. Avoid excessive irrigation. Use compact varieties. Deep summer ploughing Reduce plant density and increase in air passage between the plants. Seed treatment with Carbendazim + Thiram (1:1) @ 3g/kg of seed is recommended or Spray the crop with Captan 5 – 6 kg/ha at 15 days interval./Spray of Carbendazim @ 1.5g/lit of water is recommended./Spray Mancozeb @3 g/lit of water.

collar rot: Sclerotium rolfsii

Symptom
  • It comes in the early stages i.e up to six weeks from sowing.
  • Drying plants whose foliage turns slightly yellow before death, scattered in the field is an indication of the disease.
  • Seedling become chlorotic.
  • The joint of stem & root turns soft slightly contracts and begins to decay.
  •  Infected parts turn brown white.
  • Black dots, like mustard in shape known as sclerotia are seen appearing on the white infected plant parts

Management

  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Avoid high moisture at the sowing time.
  • Seedlings should be protected from excessive moisture.
  • Destroy the residues of last crop and weed before sowing and after harvest.
  • All un decomposed matter should be removed from the field before land preparation.
  • Treat the seeds with a mixture of Carbendazim 1g per kg of seed.
DRY ROOT ROT –
Symptom
The disease appears from flowering to podding stage as scattered dried plants. The leaves and stem are become straw colored. Affected plants wither and spread across the entire field. The roots of infected plants become brittle and dry.


Management Deep ploughing in summer Grow cultivars resistant to dry root rot. Drought should be avoided. Sowing should always be done on the recommended time. Germinating and young seedlings should be saved from high temperatures. Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed. Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.        

Fusarium wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri

Symptom

  • The disease can affect the crop at any stage.
  • The field symptoms of wilt are dead seedlings or adult plants, usually in patches.
  • At seedling stage, 3-5 weeks after sowing, whole seedlings collapse and lie flat on the ground with dull green leaves and shrunken stem.
  • Dark drown or dark discoloration of the internal stem tissues is visible.
  • At adult stage, drooping of petioles, rachis and leaflets and finally entire plant occurs.  

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Follow crop rotation measures continuously.

Always use disease free seeds

  • Avoid sowing when temperatures are high.
  • Follow 6-year crop rotations with sorghum
  • Apply FYM 10-15 cart load/ha.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.
  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim at the rate of 1g/kg of seed /

Seed treatment with Thiram + Carbandizm @ 1g+2g per kg of seed

Powdery mildew: Oidiopsis taurica

  • ‘]Symptom
  • • Crop plants of all the age group are affected.
  • • With the onset of the disease white powdery mass appear on the leaves.
  • • Small patches of white powder coating initially develop on both surfaces of older leaves.
  • • Affected leaves turn purple and then die.
  • • When infection is severe, stems, young leaves, and pods are also covered with the powdery coating
  • Management
  • • Field and crop sanitation.
  • • Dithane M-45 or Carbendazim at 2.5 g/lit should be sprayed.

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