OKRA CULTIVATION

Scientific Name : Abelmoschus esculentus

Family: Malvaceae

Origin : Africa

Okra is a vegetable crop which is also known as Bhendi, Gumbo or Ladies finger. It is a warm-season vegetable. It is a good source of minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, and fiber. It contains a sticky juice that people use to thicken sauces.

The major Bhendi producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, assam, Odisha, Andra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Varieties and Hybrids

Prabhani kranthi

Hissar unnat

Pusa sawani

Varsha Uphar

Punjab padmini

Pusa mukhmali

Arka anamika

Arka abhay

Hybrids: CO3,COBh H 1, CO2

Climate

Okra is a tropical plant requiring warm growing conditions. Commercial production is recommended only in the warmest portions of the state.

The okra plants prefer night temperatures above 60 degrees and day temperatures above 85 degrees. 

Soil

It is cultivable in wide range of soils from sandy loam to clayey loam soils.

Season
Planting is mainly done during June – August and February months.

Seed rate

Varieties – 8.0 kg / ha
Hybrids – 2.5 kg / ha

Seed treatment

Seed treatment is done with Tricoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg of seeds.

Land Preparation

4 – 5 ploughings should be given and apply FYM of 10 kg/ha, neem cake of 1 kg. Form ridges and furrows at 45 cm apart.

Sowing

Sow three seeds per hill at 30 cm apart and then thinning is done to 2 plants per hill after 10 days.

Spacing
Seeds are sown at the spacing of 45 x 30 cm

Irrigation

Irrigation is done at weekly intervals.

Application of Fertilizers

Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each at 2 kg/ha mixed with 100 kg of FYM before sowing.

Varieties
Basal dose

FYM @ 25 t/ha, Urea @ 20 kg, SSP@ 50 kg and MOP @ 30 kg/ha as basal dose

Urea @20 kg/ha at 30 days after sowing as top dressing.

Hybrids
Basal dose

FYM @ 40 t / ha, Urea @ 100 kg, SSP @ 100 kg and MOP @ 100 kg/ha as basal dose

Urea @100 kg /ha 30 days after sowing.

Fertigation schedule for hybrids
Recommended dose: 200:100: 100 kg / ha

 1. 19:19:19 = 54 kg / ha
 2. 13:0:45 = 200 kg / ha
 3. 12:61:0 = 25 kg / ha
 4. Urea = 350 kg / ha

Weed control

Spray Oxyflourfen at 0.15 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin at 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Metolachlor at 0.75 kg a.i./ha as pre emergence application on third day after sowing. 

One hand weeding should be done on 30 days after sowing.

Crop Protection

We can observe number of diseases and Pests in okra crop.

Major diseases are Cercospora leaf spot, Fusarium wilt, Powdery mildew and Yellow vein mosaic.

Major pests in Bhendi are Fruit and shoot borer, whitefly, jassids, aphids, Stem weevil and red cotton bug

By using different fungicides, pesticides and other cultural methods we can control these diseases and pests.

Harvesting

Harvesting can be done 45 days after planting.

Fruits are harvested in tender stage at 1 – 2 days intervals.

Yield

An average yield of 12 – 15 t/ha can be obtained.

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