Marigold farming and its management.

Marigold is a common grown flower of India. It is very important flower, as it extensively used on religious and social function. Also it is used as trap crop. As it is short duration crop with low investment, it becomes popular crop of India. Marigold flowers are attractive in shape and color. It is widely adopted because of ease of cultivation. On basis of size and color, it has two main varieties, African Marigold and French marigold. Plants of French marigold variety are short while flowers are small in size compared to African marigold. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, AP, Tamil Nadu and MP are major marigold cultivator in India. Dashera and Diwali are two festivals when demand for this crop is highest.

soil condition:

It can be grown on wide range of soil. But it grows best on well drained and loamy soil. pH of soil should be in range of 6.5 to 7.5. Acidic and saline soil is not suitable for cultivation.

French Marigold are grown best in light soil whereas soil with rich manure is best for African Marigold.

varities

KSP 5324 F1 YELLOW KING

Plant Height: Medium Tall Plant Width: 50 – 55 cm Flower Size: 8 – 10 cm Season: Summer and Rainy Remark: Continuous Flowering

African Marigold:

Crop of these varieties are tall up to 90cm. Flower are of big size and having color like lemon, yellow, golden yellow, orange or bright yellow color. This is long duration variety. It includes variety like, Giant Double African Orange, Crown of Gold, Giant Double African Yellow, Chrysanthemum Charm, Golden Age, Cracker Jack etc.

French Marigold:

These are early maturing dwarf varieties. Its flowers are small size having colors ranges from yellow, orange, golden yellow, rusty red, mahogany etc. It includes varieties like Rusty Red, Butter Scotch, Red Borcade, Star of India, Lemon drop etc.

Pusa Basanti Gainda: It is a long duration variety. Plant height is about 58.80cm tall with dark green leaves. Flowers are of sulphur yellow colored, double and carnation type.

Pusa Narangi Gainda: It required 125-136days for flowering. Its plants are tall with height of 73.30cm and leaves are of dark green color. Flowers are of orange colored and carnation type. Flowers are compact and double layered. Gives average yield of 140q/acre of fresh flower.

Spacing

Proper spacing between plants is required for better development of plants and for
higher flower yield. The following spacing is recommended for marigold.
1) African marigold
60 X 30 cm or 45 X 30cm.
2) French marigold
20 X 20cm or 20 X15cm


Manures and Fertilizers
Incorporate 20 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure during the last ploughing. Apply 20-40
kg Nitrogen (N), 80 kgs of Phosphorous(P) and 80 kgs of potash (P) per acre. Half of nitrogen, entire dose of phosphorus
and potash should be applied as basal dose, preferably one week after transplanting and rest
half nitrogen should be applied one month after the first application. Irrigate after application.
Intercultural operations
In marigold control of weeds is an important operation. If the weeds are not removed
in time, a great loss would occur in terms of growth and productivity of marigold particularly
during rainy season. Hoeing and weeding should be done 3 to 4 times during the crop period
to make the soil loose and weed free.
Irrigation
At all stages of vegetative growth (55-60 days) and during flower production
sufficient amount of moisture in soil is essential. Moisture stress at any stage affects normal
growth and flowering. In lighter soils more frequent irrigations are required than in heavy
soils. In sandy loam soil, weekly irrigation is necessary between September to March while
during summer months between April to June irrigation at 4-5 days intervals is required.
Pinching


In tall cultivars of African marigold, plants first grow upwards to their final height
and later on produce a terminal flower. After the formation of terminal flower bud, axillary
branches develop which also bear flower. However, if the apical portion of shoot is removed
early, large number of axillary shoots arise resulting in well shaped bushy plant bearing more
number of uniform sized flowers. Removal of apical portion of shoot is known as pinching. It
is observed that pinching at 40 days after transplanting enhances flower yield. However,
Giant double African yellow and orange do not require pinching as the plants are bushy and
branching type.
Harvesting
Marigold flowers are plucked when they attain full size. Harvesting should be
done either in the morning or evening hours. Field should be irrigated beforeharvesting of flowers so that the flowers keep well for longer period after harvest.
Productivity of plants increases considerably by regular plucking of flowers and
beheading the dried flowers .
Yield
Flower
Yield of flowers varies with type and variety. Normally 4-6 tonnes of flowers per acre
can be obtained. However, Giant African yellow when planted in September, may give 10
tonnes of flowers per acre.
Seed
Seeds should be collected only from winter crop.
African marigold – 120-150 Kg /ac
French marigold – 400-500 Kg/ac.
Packing
After harvest, flowers are packed in moist gunny bags or bamboo baskets covered
with moist cloth or polythene sheets and sent to market.

Plant Protection
Pests

Bud caterpillars

bud worm in marigold

Eggs are laid singly on young buds. Larvae feed on developing flowers by damaging
florets. Larvae of Phycita sp. feed on heads of buds and flowers.
Control
Collection and destruction of infested buds and flowers. Sprays of 1) Emamectin benzoate 2)Flubendimide
3)Emamectin benzoate + novolurone
4)Spinosad
5)profenofos + cypermithrin
6)thiodiocarb
7)coragen

Aphids (Aphis gossypii)

Marigold flower is eaten and colonized by Aphids

Aphids mainly infest lower surface of flowers and base of petals. Nymphs and adults
suck the sap from the flowers causing discoloration and withering.
Control
Spraying of Acetamiprid
Imidacloprid
Thiacloprid
Sulfoxaflor
Flupyradifurone
Bifenthrin
Cypermethrin
Spinosad
Spinetoram
lambdacyhalothrin + thimetaxom

Thrips


Thirps infest young leaves, buds and flowers and suck the sap. Affected leaves get
distorted, while petals of flowers turn brown and dirty.
Control
Two or three sprays of Oxydemeton methyl, Diemthoate 0.05%, at 10 days interval.
Diseases
Wilt and Stem rot (Phytophthora cryptogea)
The fungus attack roots and collar portions of the plants. In nurseries the infection
results in damping off and is aggravated by high soil moisture. In the field the infected plants
show wilting.
Control
Treat soil with Captaf, Mancozeb and Metalaxyl.
Collar and root rot (Pellicularia filamentosa, P.rolfsii, Pythium ultimum, Scelrotinia
slerotiarum)
Rotting of root and collar portions is noticed resulting in wilting of the plant.
Control
Soil fumigation and planting healthy seedlings.
Leaf spot and blight (Alternaria sp., Septoria sp., Cerospora sp.)
Brown circular and brownish grey spots appear.
Control
Spraying fungicides regularly.
Powdery mildew (Oidium sp. Leveillula taurica)
The fungi cause powdery patches on leaves.
Control
Foliar application of sulphur compounds, Carbendazim, Triadimefon, Fenerimol,

Penconazole and Triforine.

3 thoughts on “Marigold farming and its management.”

  1. Hi हमे फूल की खेती की जानकारी चाहिए। जमुई बिहार

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