GUAVA PLANTATION AND MANAGEMENT

ABOUT

Common name – Apple of the tropics / Poor man’s apple

•Guava is originated in tropical America (Mexico) and has spread to
most of the tropical and subtropical countries of the world.
• Commercially Guava grown in Cuba, Malaysia, Myanmar, Venezuela,
Australia, South Africa, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Cameroon,
Mexico, Peru, Thailand, Sudan, Kenya and India.
• In India it is successfully grown in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa, Tripura.
• U.P. is considered as the most important guava producing state of
India and Allahabad – Varanasi region has the reputation of growing
the best quality Guava in the country as well as in the world.
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14

Uses of guava

• Guava fruit is a berry and has very thin skin.
• The fruit have gritty texture due to presence of stone cells, and have
sweet aroma.
• Fruit is excellent source of Vit-C and pectin, but has low energy
(66cal/100g) and protein 1%, and has about 17% dry matter and 83%
moisture.
• Fruit is rich in minerals like P, Ca, Fe as well as vitamins like niacin,
panthotenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin and Vit-A.
• Excellent salad, pudding, jam, jelly, nectar, concentrate, and syrup can
be made from Guava fruit.
• The roots, bark, leaves and immature fruits because of their astringency, are commonly
employed to halt gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and dysentery throughout the tropics.
• Crushed leaves are applied on wounds, ulcers, and rheumatic places.
• Leaves are chewed to relieve toothache.
• The leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for coughs, throat and chest ailments, gargled to
relieve oral ulcers and inflamed gums.
• Effective in halting vomiting and diarrhea in cholera patients.
• It is also applied on skin diseases.
• A combined decoction of leaves and bark is given to expel the placenta after childbirth.

FAVORABLE CONDITIONS

Soil:
• Guava tree is very hardy and can thrive on all type of soil from alluvial to lateritic.
• Sensitive to water logging.
• It can grown on heavy but well drained soil.
• The best soils are deep, friable and well drained.
• pH – 5.5 – 7.5.

Climate:
• Owing to its hardy nature, guava is grown successfully in tropical and subtropical regions
up to 1500 m above mean sea – level.
• Best quality guavas are obtained where low night temperatures (10˚C) prevail during
winter season.
• In areas having distinct winter season, the yield increases and quality improves.
• It grows best with an annual rainfall around 1000 mm restricted between June and
September.
• Young plants are susceptible to draught and cold.

VARITIES

Punjab Safeda: It has creamy and white flesh. The fruit contains 13.4% sugar content and are 0.62% sour.

Punjab Pink: Fruits is of medium to large size with attractive skin color, gives golden yellow color in summer season. Flesh of fruit is of red color with pleasant flavour. TSS ranges from 10.5 to 12%. Gives average yield of 155 kg per tree.

Punjab Kiran: It has pink flesh. The fruit contains 12.3% sugar content and 0.44% sour content. The seeds are small and soft.

Fruits are medium size.
• Weight – 180-200 g.
• Fruit flesh – Pink colour.
• TSS . – 12-12.5° Brix .
• seeds are soft.

Allahbad Safeda: Dwarf variety with round crown and spreading branches. Fruit is smooth, round and flesh is of white color with pleasant flavor. TSS ranges from 10-12%. Gives average yield of 145 kg per Tree.

• This is the most famous variety
gown in Uttar Pradesh for table purpose.
• Tree is medium in height (5.8-6.5m)
with vigorous branching and dense foliage.
• Fruits are medium in size (180g),
round in shape with few seeds.
• Fruit is white fleshed with good keeping quality.

Arka Amulya: Dwarf variety with compact, round crown with dense foliage. Fruit is of large size, smooth, round and having white flesh. TSS ranges from 9.3 to 10.1%. Gives average yield of 144 kg per Tree.

Allahabad safeda X triploid seedless
plant are medium in vigour and spreading type
fruit- round in shape
fruit weight-180-200gm
skin of fruit- smooth and yellow in colour.
fruit flesh-white in coloyr
TSS-12` Brix
soft seed variety
weight of 100 seeds-1.80gm

Sardar: Also known as L-49. Dwarf variety with spreading branches. Fruit is large in size having rough surface. Flesh is of creamy white, smooth, juicy with rich test. TSS ranges from 10-12%. Gives average yield of 130-155 kg per tree.

Shweta: It has creamy white flesh. The fruit contains 10.5-11.0% sucrose content. It gives an average yield of 151kg per tree.

It is selected from half-sib
population of Apple colour.
• Released year – 2005.
• Creamy white epicarp with red
spots.
• Fruit pulp – Snow white in
colour.
• Weight – 285 gm.
• TSS. – 12.5⁰– 14⁰ Brix.
• Vit. C – 300mg/100gm of pulp

Nigiski: It gives an average yield of 80kg per tree.

Punjab Soft: It gives an average yield of 85kg per tree.

Allahabad Surkha: Seedless variety. Large fruit with uniform pink color flesh.

Apple guava: Pink colored medium size fruits. Fruits are having sweet taste with good keeping quality.

Chittidar: Popular variety of Uttar Pradesh. Fruits are similar to Allahbad Safeda variety except these fruits having red dots on skin. Its TSS content is higher than Allahbad Safeda and L 49 variety.

propagation

Sexually propagation method:

Seed propagation:

Seedling can be raised in nursery or in polythene bags from freshly extracted seeds of fully matured fruits.

Seed viability declines very quickly after extraction from fruits.

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Which may be extended by treatment with potassium nitrate or ferulic acid.

• Cutting:
Soft wood and semi-hard wood cuttings are used.

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Take semi-hard wood cuttings with 2-4 leaves.

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Give treatment with IBA at 5000 ppm+ P-hydroxy benzoic acid at 200 ppm shows 92% rooting.

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Then planted in sand under mist.

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Pre-treatment of stock plant with ethrel (50 ppm) and treatment with IBA at 3000
ppm during planting of cutting caused 100% rooting

Air layering:
Shoots selected for air-layering should be 1 cm in diameter and preferably from
previous years growth.

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A ring of bark about 3 cm long is removed.

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Cover ring with media (soil : leaf mould ; 1:1) or with Sphagnum moss, previously
soaked in water.

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Wrapped with polyethylene film.

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The ends of film are carefully tied and left for rooting.

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It takes 30-40 days for rooting during mansoon.

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Air layers treated with IBA at 5000 ppm and found 90% rooting in month of June,80% in May, 70% in April, and further decreased gradually to 10% in the month of December.

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Air-layering in guava is most successful between April and June in warm and humid
climate. When temperature varies between 29.3 and 30.5˚C and relative humidity
between 69.0 and 80.0 %.

Stooling:


Air-layers were grown for 3-5 years.

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Then cut back and allowed to shoots.

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Then shoots were ringed, IBA was applied in lanolin.

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The ringed shoots were earthed up to induce rooting.

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After rooting the shoots were separate and planted in nursery beds.

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Etiolation of shoots for 30 days and treatment with IBA at 5000 ppm caused 100%
rooting as well as survivality of the stool layers.

• Grafting:

• Inarching is another important method of propagation, however, the method is
more labourious than cutting and air layering.
• The other method of grafting which showed success is veneer grafting.
• Budding:
• Forkert, patch, shield, and ring budding were reported to be successful in guava.
• Patch budding on 1 year old seedling rootstock during May-June showed 80-85%
success.

FIELD PREPERATION

Soil preparation: 

Begin with deep ploughing, cross ploughing, harrowing, and leveling of soil. 

Dig pits of 0.6 m x 0.6 m x 0.6 m before monsoon. 

Leave them open for 15-20 days. 

Then fill them with soil that is mixed with 500 g superphosphate and 20 kg organic manure. 

In case of poor soil, you must dig bigger pits of size 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. Also add more organic manure. 

Start planting with the onset of monsoon. 

Spacing and planting

Guava is commonly planted at 5m x 5m or 6m x 6m spacing, accommodating 278
to 400 plants per hectare, in square system of planting.
• Guava is highly suitable for high density plantation, because bearing is on current
seasons growth and flowers appear on axils of new leaves.
• Guava can also be planted in a hedgerow system at a spacing of 6m x 3m or 6m x
2m.

  • In this system, the trees are confined to a hedge shape of 2m inter-row width
    and 2m height for which regular pruning is necessary.
  • Hedgerow plantations gave almost double the crop per unit area than 6m x 6m
    spacing

Training and Prunning:
• Initial training is necessary for development of a strong framework for which the first 60 to
90 cm from the base of the trunk should be cleaned.
• Keep 4 – 5 scaffold branches at an interval of 20 – 25 cm.
• When the plant attained a height of about 1.5 m to 1.8 m, it is then headed back to make
the centre open.
• In some parts of India (Maharashtra and south Bengal) bending system of training get
practiced for increasing yield.
• As the flower and fruits are borne on current season’s growth, a light annual pruning is
considered necessary to encourage new shoots after harvesting.
• All dead, diseased, crowded growth and suckers coming up from the base and sides of the
framework should be pruned back annually.
• Hedgerow system needs regular pruning to keep the plant in desired size.

FERTIGATION AND IRRIGATION

Time of fertilizer application depends on the region and variety.
• In North India, fertilizer is applied in the 1st week of May for rainy
season crop and in 1st week of July for winter season crop.
• The plants are manured twice a year.
• First during June – July and second by during October.

Region Recommended fertilizer dose
g / Plant / Year
Northern region 600 g N, 400 g K.
Eastern region 260 g N, 320 g P, 260 g K.
Southern region 900 g N, 600 g P, 600 g K.
Western region 600 g N, 300 g P, 300 g K.

• Half quantity of nitrogen at bahar treatment and remaining half after fruit retension.
• Full quantity of phosphorus and potash is applied at bahar treatment.

It has been observed that placement of fertilizer midway between
trunk and drip line is better than at drip line or beyond it.
• Foliar spraying of potassium ( as potassium sulphate 1.0 to 2.0%) ,
Calcium ( as Calcium Nitrate , 1 to 2 %) were found effective in
increasing yield and improving fruit quality.

Irrigation is frequently needed during initial establishment of plantation.
• Weekly or bi-weekly watering is essential during first few months after planting.
• The daily water requirement of guava varies from 15.6 to 61.0 L / day / plant
respectively in the months of December and April – May.
• The annual water requirement of Guava grown at the spacing of 5m x 5.5m is
3854 m3/ ha.
• Drip irrigation on alternate or 2-days interval is recommended during dry periods
of April – May.
• Need based 1 or 2 irrigations during December – January is found beneficial

Flowering

In northern India, three distinct flowering season, i.e. summer, rainy and autumn
with corresponding harvesting periods rainy, winter and spring have been
observed.
• In West Bengal, two distinct seasons of blooming are found, once in April – May
and against in September – October.
• In U.P. maximum extension growth was observed in spring season followed by
rainy and winter seasons.
• The season also has well – pronounced influence in respect to flowering, yield
and fruit quality.

 

•The fruit yield is usually higher in the rainy season while fruit quality
was found better during winter season.
• The guava bears flower, solitary or in cymes of two or three flowers,
on the current seasons growth in the axil of leaves. Both terminal as
well as lateral bearing shoots were observed in guava.
• The flowering and blooming period varies from 25 – 45 days
depending on the cultivar, season and region of growing.

fruitset

About 80-90 % flowers of guava sets fruit initially of which 35 – 60 %
reaches maturity.
• In cultivars like seedless, the final fruit retention is as low as 6%. The
formation of fruit set is noticed after 10 – 12 days of flowering.
• Spraying GA3 at 15 – 30 ppm increased the fruit set.

fruit growth

The growth of guava fruits followed a double sigmoid curve with, two periods of
rapid growth with a period of relatively slow growth in between.
• The weight of fruit and fruit size gradually increase at the first phase, then slow
down and finally increase till maturity.
• Guava fruit generally takes about 17 – 20 weeks from fruit set to reach maturity.
• The total soluble solids, total sugar and ascorbic acid contents of fruit increased
markedly at the later stages of fruit growth while fruit acidity decreased.

Pest  and their management

  1. Fruit fly ( Chaetodacus sp.) :
    • The adults of fruit fly lay eggs on fruit surface during monsoon.
    • The maggots enter the fruit and feed on pulp causing dropping of fruits.
    • Bagging of fruits 3-4 weeks from fruit set and spraying of malathion and fenthion
    is suggested to control the pest

Damage – Mostly larvae damages the fruit as it nourishes inside the fruit during its growth. This insect also deteriorates the quality and taste of fruits.
Finally fruits drop down and not suitable for market sale and due to it productivity also reduces and production also decreases up to 70-80 %.

Control – To control this insect, spray
1) monocrotophos 36%sl 1-1.5ml/lt or
2)profenofos 1-1.5ml/lt or
3)chloropyriphos 1-1.5ml/lt
4)malathion 50 EC 2 ml/l.
5)dimethoate 30 EC 1ml/lit, two rounds at fortnight interval before ripening of fruits.

Management – Collect the infected fruits from the orchard & throw out. Do not take the crop of rainy season because it decreases both the quality and yield.

  1. Mealy bug (Ferrisia varigata) :
    • The tiny small bugs usually suck sap from twigs, leaves and flower.
    • Infested fruits will have uneven shapes, poor quality and are susceptible to
    secondary infection by pathogens.
    • Soil application of thimet and banding the tree trunk with polyethylene film will
    prevent the nymph to climb up from the soil.

Management Debark the vines and swab with methylparathion @ 1 ml /L to minimize the population
Spray dichlorvas 1.0 L or chlorpyriphos 1.25 L or buprofezin 25 SC 1.0-1.5 L or methomyl 40 SP 1.25 kg with 500 L water/ha.
Release Australian lady bird beetle Cryptoleamus montrouzieri @ 2500 – 3750 per ha
Conserve coccinellid Scymnus craccivora and lepidopteran predator Spalgis epius
Avoid spraying methyl parathion, carbaryl, monocrotophos, dimethoate, methyldemeton, quinalphos, diazinon, malathion etc as they are toxic to predators

Diseases

Wilt:
•Caused by – several fungus namely Fusarium
spp., Cephalosporium spp., Macrophomina
phaseoli either alone or in combination.
•Yellowing of leaves followed by drying of leaves
and twigs from the tip.
•Complete wilting – in 10 – 15 days.
•Control – by soil drenching with ridomilgold and
streptocyclene sulphate .

•spraying of Bavistin (0.1%) around the roots and
leaves at an interval of 15 days.
•Infected plants should be uprooted and burnt,
as well as preventive treatment also apply on
adjacent healthy plant.
•Resistant variety: Dholka, Nasik, Supreme and
Banarasi.

  1. Anthracnose :
    • Disease caused by Gloesporium psidii.
    • Affected plants showed signs of die back from the tip of the branch; however
    leaves, shoots and fruits are rarely affected.
    • Control: spraying the trees with copper oxychloride, cuprous oxide
  1. Cercospora leaf spot :
    • Water soaked patches under the leaf caused by Cercospora sawadae.
    • Infection can be reduced by spraying copper oxychloride at 0.3 %.

Bronzing in Guava :-
• Nutritional disorder
• Leaf turn yellow
Control :- Micronutrients spray combination
containing ZnSO4, MgSO4 and MnSO4 @ 0.5% and
CuSO4 and FeSO4 @ 0.25 % plus Teepol @ 1ml per 5 lit
of solution on various stages

  1. New flush 2. One month after first spray
  2. Flowering 4. Fruit set

Maturity:

Guava fruit are picked at the mature – green stage in some countries according to
consumers demand.
• In countries where consumers prefer ripe guava, the fruits are picked at the firmyellow
to half – ripe stage for long distance transport and at fully ripe stage for local
market.
• If eaten green fruit should be harvested at the mature, firm stage without any sign
of ripening.
• Fruit to be consumed soft and ripe are harvested when they show some sign of
colour change from green to yellow, as well as initial softening.
• SSC can vary from 3% in green fruit to >10% in ripe fruit and the TA from 0.2 to 1.5%
; cultivars vary greatly in sweetness and acidity.

Harvesting

• Seedling guava trees require 4-5 years to bear, while vegetatively propagated
plants started bearing at the age of 2-3 years.
• The fruit turn greenish yellow with the advancement of maturity.
• Harvesting of guava needs extra care because the fruit has soft, thin skin.
• It is normally carried out by hand to avoid physical injuries.
• Subsequent handling and transportation of the fruit also need extra precautions
to reduce bruising.

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