Grapes farming and management:

GRAPES

The grape is the most important crop grown in the world. Mostly it grown for making wines and preparation of raisin and then as a table fresh fruit. While in India, it is mainly grown for table use.
At present, grape is the most important fruit crop grown commercially with the objectives.

a.For table purpose

b.For export purpose

c.For making wines and

d.For making raisins.

Fresh grapes are a fairly good source of minerals like calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins like B. Famous champagne and other desert wines are prepared from grapes.

Agro-climatic Requirements

Grape is a versatile crop that can adjust to any type of climate. The ideal climate is in the Mediterranean region. In Europe, America, Australia and Russia, it is grown under temperate conditions, while in Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, China, Pakistan, Israel and North India it is grown under sub-tropical conditions. It is also cultivated under the tropical climatic conditions of Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Kenya, South and West India.

Sandy to clayey and loamy soil with good drainage and irrigation facilities is suitable for the cultivation of Grapes. Soils having pH value from 6.5 to 7.5 are most suitable.

In its natural habitat, the crop bears fruit during the hot and dry period and undergoes dormancy during the period of severe cold. It tolerates frost during resting stage but is very susceptible during growing period. Temperature ranging from 15-350 C is ideal for shoot growth and normal physiological processes of the grapevine. Vines do not grow and fruit well when the temperature falls below 100 C.

Locations where the annual rainfall does not exceed 900 mm. are ideal for its cultivation. More than the amount of rainfall received during a year, the number of rainy days in a year and the occurrence of rains in relation to the stage of growth of the vine is important. Humidity associated with rains during flowering and fruit ripening is not favourable and invites the attack of fungal diseases.

Growing and Region of Growth.

Maharashtra (Nasik, Sangli, Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara, Solapur and Osmanabad Districts) ranks first in the production of grape followed by Karnataka (Bangalore, Kolar, Bijapur), Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh (Rangareddy, Medak, Ananthapur). In these States, grape orchards bear two crops in a year resulting in exceptionally high yield. Fruit quality is however poor.

In north India, grape is cultivated mainly in Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Vegetative growth takes place only in the spring season; consequently the fruiting is only once in a year during the summer months.

Here are varities according to the regions;

Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, RajasthanThompson Seedless, Perlette, Beauty Seedless, Anab-e-Shahi, Black Hamburg, Black Prince, Dakh, Foster’s seedling, Kandhari, Khalili, Pandhari Sahebi, Watham Cross, Pusa Seedless, Hur, Black Muscat, Early Muscat, Banquiabyad, Cardinal, Kairon
Telangana & Rayalseema regions of Andhra Pradesh
. Nasik, Pune, Sholapur, Satara, Sangli, Bhir, Aurangabad and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra
Bijapur,Gulbarga,Raichur, Bellary districts of Karnataka


Anab-e-Shahi, Thompson Seedless, Cheema Sahebi, Pandari Sahebi, Gulabi, Bhokri, Kali Sahebi, Sonaka & Tas-A-Ganesh(clones of Thompson seedless).
Madurai, Salem and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu
Bangalore, Kolar, Mysore & Tumkur districts of Karnataka


Bhokri, Anab-e-Shahi, Gulabi, Bangalore Blue, Black Champa, Convent Large Black, Angur Kalan, Taifi Rosovi, Coarna Resia, Queen of vineyard, Kandhari, Black Prince, Muscat, Pachadraksha


  • Thompson Seedless
    Sultana is commonly known as “Thompson Seedless” in the United States. This variety is also available in several countries other than the US such as Iraq, Iran, Turkey etc. It is believed that the Sultana variety originated from Asia Minor. These grapes are light green with an oval shape and hold a special place in the Indian markets. The raisins processed from these grapes are high in sugar and are generally consumed as a snack in our country. The cultivation of this variety is mostly done in the northern part of India.
Thompson seedles
  • Anab-e-Shahi:
    Anab-e-Shahi was introduced by Abdul Baquer Khan in the early 1900’s. Initially grown in the state of Andhra Pradesh and later cultivation moved to few other states such as Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu etc. This variety is consumed mostly fresh and has a great nutritional value in its seed and skin. Nowadays, farmers are cultivating more and more Thompson seedless and its sub types, because of the market hype. As a result of that Shahi is at the verge of getting extinct in the coming future. Anab-e-Shahi has a long shape and its seeds are white in colour.
  • Dilkhush
    Like Thompson Seedless has its clones and sub types, Diskhush variety of grapes can be considered as clones of Anab-e-Shahi. Both varieties have the same attributes. Both have pale green colour along with white coloured seeds. Speaking about its production, Karnataka holds the first position along with many other states producing the same. Most of the harvesting is done in the hot summer days of March and April. Both Anab-e-Shahi and Dilkhush have a zesty taste to it.
  • Sharad Seedless
    Sharad Seedless is black or purple in colour. These grapes are known for their sweetness and bright colour. These gapes have a high concentration of vitamin A, C and B6 and are considered very healthy. Most of the cultivation is done in the northern parts of the country with Mumbai being the centre of cultivation. Sharad Seedless is available between the months of December and February. These grapes are highly marketable and have a great demand in the overseas markets.
  • Perlette
    Perlette grapes are mostly round in shape but also come in oval shape as well. Perlette are seedless and kind of similar to Thompson Seedless variety. These grapes are big and have a clear thin skin with a bit of greenish tint. The insides are very juicy and delicious. Perlette can be grown in a wide range of climates. These grapes are eaten fresh and also used for producing raisins. In India, most of the cultivation happens in the state of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Perlette seedless

varieties of commercial value:

Table grapesAnab-e-Shahi, Bangalore Blue, Beauty Seedless, Bhokri (Pachadrakshi), Cheema Sahebi, Delight, Gulabi (Panneer Drakshi, Muscat Hamburg), Himrod, Kali Sahebi,Kandhari, Khalili, Pandari Sahebi, Perlette, Selection 94, Pusa Seedless and Thompson Seedless.
Raisin grapeThompson Seedless, Arkavati.
Wine grapesBangalore Blue, Thompson Seedless and Arka Kanchan.

Land Preparation

Land Should be levelled as per the requirement, soil type and gradient. In case of drip irrigation, leveling need not be perfect.

The size of the plot will vary with the type of training system used. In case of bower and telephone or “T” trellis the ideal size could be 60 X 80 m. and 90 X 120 m. respectively.

Planting

Grape is usually propagated by hard wood cuttings, though propagation by seed, soft wood cuttings, layering, grafting and budding is also used in some cases.

The grapevines are usually planted in pits. The size of the pit depends upon the spacing of the vines and also on the specific requirements of the variety. The depth may vary from 60 to 90 cm. depending upon the soil type. Wider spacing (1.2 m. X 1.2 m.) is required in case of vigorous varieties like Anab-e-Shahi and Bangalore Blue. A little less than that (i.e. 90 X 90 cm.) is required in case of varieties viz. Thompson Seedless, Perlette and Beauty Seedless. In central Maharashtra and northern parts of Karnataka the spacing adopted for Thompson seedless and its mutants is 1.8m X 2.4 m. The pits need to be opened about a month before planting.

Planting is usually avoided during the rainy season. The best time for planting is February-March in North India, November-January in the peninsular India. In Karnataka and Tamil Nadu it is usually planted during December-January, due to the fact that rainy season lasts upto end of November.

Growth of the plants starts 10-15 days after planting, depending upon the season of planting. Growth occurs earlier in case of those planted during warm season as compared to those planted in cold season. After one month of planting, the young plants need staking and training.

Training

In India systems like bower, kniffin, telephone, head and slanting trellis have been tried in the past, but the bower & telephone system are being followed on a large scale. About 80% of the vineyard area in India is on bower system.

The training system and intensity of pruning recommended for different varieties is given below:

VarietiesDistance of plantingSystem of trainingNo. of canes to be left on each vineNo. of buds to be left per cane
Thompson seedless2 X 3Kniffin16-208-10
Beauty seedless2 X 2Head16-203-4
Anab-e-Shahi3 X 6Arbour60-805-6
perlrtte3 X 3Head , Kniffin30-403-4

Bower

This system is most widely used in commercial cultivation of grapes and particularly for the vigorous varieties with high degree of apical dominance. As the shoots start growing from the newly –planted rooted cuttings in the main field, only the best shoot growing vertically is allowed to grow along the stake provided upto the bower height.

Kniffin (also called Espalier System)

The system is less expensive than Bower, yet it is less commonly followed. It is suitable for training moderately vigorous varieties having less degree of apical dominance. Close planting of vines within a row at spacing of 1.80 to 2.40 m. depending upon the vigour of the plant is followed keeping the row to row distance at 3 meters. As in the case of Bower, the vigorous and vertically growing shoot is trained along the vertical support.

Advantages of Kniffin System over Bower System:

· Less expensive
· Disease incidence and spread is less.
· Easy to carry out spraying and other cultural operations.

The main drawback is that yield is about half of what is obtained on bower system. Though the vine canopy is exposed to light, the lower laterals are less productive due to shading by the foliage on the upper laterals. Damage to the branches is more due to sunburn and birds.

Telephone System

T-trellis is used in this system of training. It is a mini discontinuous bower with shoots hanging downwards with three topped wires and T-shaped support, the trellis looks like a telephone pole and wires. It is as expensive as kniffin system and is suitable for moderately vigorous varieties with slightly more apical dominance.

Advantages of Telephone System over Bower System:

· Better ventilation and light interception
. More convenient to carry out cultural operations and spraying
· Less expensive

Disadvantages of Telephone System over Bower System :

· Less yield as there is no provision for developing as many number of canes per unit area as in Bower.
· During summer months, sunburn of berries is observed in very hot and dry places.

                               Head System

Head

This is the least expensive of all the training systems. It is suitable for less vigorous varieties with less degree of apical dominance and for those in which the basal buds in a cane are fruitful, such as Beauty Seedless, Delight and Perlette in North India and Gulabi in South India. Plants are spaced very closely to accommodate about 4000 – 4500 plants per ha. with a spacing of 1.80 m. and 1.20 m to 1.50 m between the rows and within a row respectively. The vines are supported to vertical stakes of eucalyptus or bamboo poles of 1.50 m. length. These supports are fixed very close to the vine 30 cm. deep in the soil leaving 1.20 m above the ground.

The return on investment made is less as compared to the Bower system. Size of the berries produced on this system is larger as compared to that of other systems. Incidence of diseases is much less on this system.

Pruning

The prevailing pruning practices in India can be broadly grouped into the following categories:

Single Pruning- Single cropping

This system is prevalent in North India. Since only one growing season is available, grapevines are pruned with the onset of spring or during late winter (mostly January-February). Floral differentiation on the current shoots and the fruit set take place simultaneously. If all the bearing shoots are retained on the vine and pruned in the next winter for fruiting, the fruiting wood multiplies faster and the vine canopy becomes denser year after year, leading to barrenness within just 3 to 4 years. In order to regulate vine canopy and extend its productive life span, half of the mature shoots are pruned for fruiting and the other half are pruned for renewing the spurs to give rise to shoots that develop into fruiting canes for the next year. Alternatively, the fruiting canes are pruned back to renewal spurs and the mature shoots developed from the previous spurs are pruned to fruiting canes year after year.

Double pruning – Single cropping

This system is predominantly followed in Maharashtra, north interior Karnataka in case of Thompson Seedless, and Andhra Pradesh on Thompson Seedless and Anab-e- Shahi grapes. After harvest in summer, the vines are forced to undergo rest for about a month, during which period water is withheld to help concentrate the reserves in the mature parts of the vine. All the fruiting canes are pruned back to spurs retaining only one basal node. This is called as “back pruning “or “foundation pruning” or “summer pruning “. Buds on the shoots growing from these spurs differentiate into floral primordial and the shoots mature in about five months. These mature shoots are pruned for fruiting before the onset of winter (September- October). This pruning is called “forward pruning” or “fruit pruning” or winter pruning”. All the mature shoots are subjected to fruit pruning. Thus, in this system of pruning, a cycle of two prunings resulting in one crop is practiced.

Double pruning – Double cropping

This system is in vogue in Anab-e-shahi and Bangalore Blue grapes in the south interior Karnataka and in Anab-e- Shahi, Bhokri and Gulabi in Tamil Nadu. Barring Bangalore Blue, the pruning practices in other varieties are common. Mature shoots are pruned to canes of 7-8 buds after harvesting the crop in summer. The mature shoots arising from these 3-4 buds along spurs are pruned for fruiting canes in the next winter. In the Madurai region and other parts of Tamil Nadu, pruning is done during November-December for summer crop harvested during March-April, and during May-June for the second crop harvested during August-September. In the south interior Karnataka, the forward pruning is done during October-November for summer crop harvested during February-March and during April-May for the second crop harvested during July-August. In Bangalore Blue, the recently mature shoots are pruned to 3-4 nodes at every pruning. There is no alternative system of backward and forward pruning in this variety. Only forward pruning is practised. Time of pruning could be any time of the year excepting December. In this variety, the crop is harvested about 5 months after pruning. As a result, three crops are harvested in two years, and the crop is harvested almost throughout the year.

Shoot Pinching

Shoot pinching is mainly done to regulate the growth, and provide better ventilation and light interception into the vine canopy. Shoot pinching is done during the growth as well as fruiting seasons in peninsular India but only during the fruiting season in North India and other temperate regions as there is only one growing season in these regions.

Irrigation

Irrigation practices vary considerably in different regions of India depending upon the rainfall pattern, time of pruning, different growth stages, water-holding capacity of soil, variety grown, training system followed and spacing of vines. Irrigation is provided once in every three days in newly planted vineyards by allowing water into a small circular basin of 50 cm. radius. With the increase in growth rate the size of the basin increases to a radius of 2m. In case of drip irrigation, only one emitter is placed at the base of the vine. The number of emitters gradually increases to two and then four which are shifted about 30 or 40cm. away from the stem depending upon the variety and spacing of the vines. Heavy irrigation is provided soon after pruning in order to wet the entire root zone thoroughly and induce active growth in the vine. Light irrigation of 50-75mm. (5.0-7.5 L./ha.) is given is given at an interval of 10-12 days during winter and 5-7 days in summers. In the event of rainfall during that interval, the next irrigation is either omitted or delayed. Irrigation frequency is reduced during anthesis, fruiting stage and also after berry softening to improve fruit quality.

fertlizer doses:

Recommended nutrient doses (kg./ha.) for different varieties of Grape

VarietyRegionNitrogen (N)Phosphate (P)Potassium(K)
Anab-e-ShahiNorth India
Telangana
South interior Karnataka
366-600
435
500
300-55
300
50
183-1200
784
1000
Beauty seedlessNorth India1650000
cheema sahebimaharashtra600240120
GUlabi, Himrod
Perlette
North India444-715460-1340465-1050
Thompson seedlessNorth India
Maharashtra
South Interior karnataka
450-1100
670-1010
310

1340
500-890
500
1340
670-800
1000

Improvement in fruit Quality

Pruning time, variations in climate during the growth period (temperature, humidity and frost), use of various chemicals to control diseases and pests are the main factors which determine the quality of the produce. Good variety bunches of Grapes for eating should be from medium to big sized, seedless grains. Varieties like Perlette tend to bear very compact bunches and require considerable thinning of berries for proper development of berry and bunch. Removal of distal end of the bunch helps in uniform ripening of berries.

Application of growth regulators also helps in improving the fruit quality. Application of 20 ppm. of Gibberellic acid (GA) (2g./100 l. water) at full bloom followed by dipping of bunches in 75 ppm. of GA solution at fruit set stage increases the bunch and berry size of seedless varieties. Similar kind of treatment given to seeded varieties does not give the same kind of result. Pre-bloom application of SADH (1500 ppm.) and CCC (1200 ppm.) increases fruit set and yields in Thompson Seedless and Anab-e-Shahi cultivars of grapes.

Signum® with the combination of Boscalid (Worlds first SDHI chemistry) and F500, is the leading fungicide used in specialty crops for the control of a wide spectrum of diseases as well as for enhanced plant/fruit health. It is registered to use in Grapes in India.

In case of stunted growth spray Daman+ or Brand liq

Insect Pests


Leaf eating caterpillar;

Grapes leafeating catterpiller

Damage symptoms
In early stages, the caterpillars are gregarious and scrape the chlorophyll content of leaf lamina giving it a papery white appearance. Later they become voracious feeders making irregular holes on the leaves.
Irregular holes on leaves initially and later skeletonisation leaving only veins and petioles
Heavy defoliation.

Natural enemies of leaf eating caterpillars
Parasitoids: Egg: Trichogramma chilonis, Telenomus spp.; Larval: Campoletis chloridae, Peribea orbata, Glipapanteles africanus, Carcelia sp, 6. Ichneumon spp., Cotesia ruficrus, Chelonus carbonator; Pupal: Blepherella setigera, Sarcophaga dux , Sarcophaga albiceps, Brachimeria lasus, Lasiochalcidia erythropoda.
Predators: Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, C. crassinervis, King crow, braconid wasps, dragon flies, spider, praying mantids, Harpactor costalis, Rhynocoris fuscipes, R. squalis , Polistes stigma, Coranus spiniscutis,

Management:
spraying of these chemical at regular interval may keep these catterpiller away.
Emamectin benzoate 5%sg
spinosad
chloropyriphos 20% ec
1DDVP
monocrotophos

Mealybugs

Damage symptoms
Nymphs and adult mealybugs suck the sap from the trunk cordons, buds, spurs, aerial roots, leaves, shoots, nodes, flower panicles and bunches.
Infestation of the growing point especially with the pink mealybug results in malformation of leaves and
Shoot tips.


Honeydew excreted by mealybug nymphs and adults, support the growth of sooty mould on leaves, shoots and bunches
Sooty and sticky bunches harbouring mealybugs and their white cottony wax masses are unfit for marketing as table grapes.
Raisins cannot be prepared from such infested bunches.
The pest attack weakens the grownup vines.
In case of severe mealybug infestation young vines often die.
The grape mealybug causes losses up to 100 per cent in severe cases in the vineyard.
Detecting and marking mealybug infestations during harvest is a key to monitoring populations the following season. Once established, parasites and predators can help keep populations down, but an infestation may slowly spread unless controlled with insecticides. Leaving areas of the vineyard untreated is an effective technique to increase predator and parasitoid populations, however, under heavy population pressure, this may not be feasible. When treating mealybugs, leave at least one out of every 10 acres untreated to provide a refuge for natural enemies, or treat with an insecticide that is not toxic to parasites,
Management
Honeydew-seeking ants must be controlled in order to allow natural enemies of mealybugs to aid in mealybug control. Controlling ants may sufficiently allow parasites and predators to control mealybugs. Ant control is best accomplished either with tillage, cover crops of common vetch, or ant baits . See the section on ANTS for additional information on control.

Natural enemies of mealybug
Parasitoid: Parasitic wasps,
Predator: Coccinellid (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri).

chemical control
Movento (Bayer Crop Science) is most widely used on grapevines to control vine mealybug.

Mites


Damage symptoms
Both nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from lower surface of tender leaves causing the cells to collapse and die.
In heavy infestations, the mites remove chlorophyll up to 70% leading into development of brown burnt patches on the infested leaves, which wither and finally dry.
Discoloration of leaves leads to reduction in photosynthesis thereby affecting the vigour of the plants.
Severe infestation of spider mites results in delay in maturing and ripening of bunches and reduction in sugar content thereby affecting the quality of grapes.

management:
fenpropathrin (Danitol).
fenpyroxymite.
Abacin.
emamectin benzaote.

Thrips

Asian bean thrips closeup

Damage
Damage is caused both by nymphs and adults by rasping the lower surface of the leaf with their stylets and sucking the oozing cell sap.
The injured surface is marked by the number of minute spots thereby producing a speckled silvery effect.
Curling of the leaves is observed in case of heavy incidence.
The thrips also attack blossoms and developing berries.
The affected berries develop a corky layer and become brown and fetches low price in the market.

Natural enemies of thrips
Predators: Predatory mite (Amblyseius swirskii), predatory thrips (Aeolothirps spp.), anthocorid bug (Orius insidiosus) etc.

chemical management:
Imidaclopride
Bifenthrion
lamdacyhalothrin
spinosad
spinoterm
Admire (imidaclo[ride 70%)
Acetamipride

Grape leaf folder


leaf folder is a very dark brown, almost black, moth with a wingspread of about 1 inch. The front wings each have two white spots. The hindwings of the female also have two white spots, while those of the male have only one large white spot. There are two white bands across the abdomen. The male antennae are thickened and distorted in the center; the female antennae are smooth

Damage symptoms


A larva is large enough it folds the leaf, exposing the under surface; the edge is held in place by bands of silk thread.
It is within the protection of this fold that the larva feeds, skeletonizing the leaf of the upper surface.
When the larvae are numerous the injury to the vine becomes conspicuous, even at a considerable distance, because the light color of the under surface of the folded leaves contrasts boldly with the dark green of the upper side normally presented, thus giving the vine a patchy appearance.
Larvae roll muscadine leaves, which are thinner than bunch grape leaves.

Natural enemies of leaf folder
Larval parasitoid: Bracon cushmani, Cardiochiles spp
Predators: Lacewing, spider

chemical management:
Chlorantraniliprole
Flubendiamide
Spinetoram
Emamectin benzoate
cypermethrin

Stem gridler:


Identification :

Grub- head is dark brown colour , with pair of strong mandibles.
Adult- its about 4cm long and dull yellow with minute spots.

The adult beetles girdle around the main stem 15cm above the ground level at night

  • During the day tehadult hide on the lower side of the leaves or under the forking of the branches , but actively move about at night avoiding the light.

Management
-remove loose bark at the time of prunin to prevent egg laying.
-collect and destroy damaged plant parts.
-A peice of cloth is soaked in insecticide solution like chloropyrifod and then wrapped around the stem.

  • chemical management
    *sraying of phosalone
    *quinalphos
    *carbaryl

Diseases in Grapes:

Downy mildew

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA


Disease symptoms
The fungus is an obligate pathogen which can attack all green parts of the vine.
Symptoms of this disease are frequently confused with those of powdery mildew. Infected leaves develop pale yellow-green lesions which gradually turn brown. Severely infected leaves often drop prematurely.
Infected petioles, tendrils, and shoots often curl, develop a shepherd’s crook, and eventually turn brown and die.
Young berries are highly susceptible to infection and are often covered with white fruiting structures of the fungus. Infected older berries of white cultivars may turn dull gray-green, whereas those of black cultivars turn pinkish red.

Survival and spread
The fungus overwinters mainly in the fallen leaves which are the source of primary infection. Secondary infection occurs by motile zoospores by splashing rain.
Favourable conditions
The most serious outbreaks have been found to occur when a wet winter is followed by a wet spring and a warm summer with intermittent rains

chemical management : Acrobat® Complete Presidio®,
Previcur Flex®,
Revus®,( 23.4%Mandipropamid)
Curzate®,
Tanos®, chlorothalonil profiler

Powdery mildew


Disease symptoms
Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Uncinulanecator, can infect all green tissues of the grapevine.
Tissues are generally susceptible to infection throughout the growing season.
Diseased leaves appear whitish gray, dusty, or have a powdery white appearance. Petioles, cluster stems, and green shoots often look distorted or stunted. Berries can be infected until their sugar content reaches about 8%.
If infected when young, the epidermis of the berry can split and the berries dry up or rot. When older berries are infected, a netlike pattern often develops on the surface of the berry.

Survival and spread
The powdery mildew fungus overwinters in dormant buds or as specialized structures on the surface of the vines. When conditions are favorable for growth of the fungus in spring, spores are produced, released, and cause new infections. Secondary spread of the disease can occur if spores are produced in these new infections.
Favourable conditions
High humidity and moist weather favours the development of disease.

chemichal management
Acrisio® Sercadis® Plus

Anthracnose


Disease symptoms
The young growing shoots are affected first. Disease infects leaves, shoots and berries. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves along the main and lateral veins.
Later on these spots coalesce and form larger patches. Brownish black lesions are formed onthe berries, which later become small and shriveled.

Survival and spread
The pathogen survives in infected plant residue in soil and seed borne.
Favourable conditions
The disease is more prevalent during June-August and again in February-March.
Temperature range of 25-30 ºC and relative humidity of 80-90% is favourable for the development of the disease. chemical management– Apply liquid lime sulfur in early spring, just before buds break. The spray kills the initial spores and prevents further development of the disease. Mancozeb
Chlorothalonil
Copper oxychloride
Captan

Greenaria bitter rot


Disease symptoms

This fungus can infect all green parts of the vine including leaves, tendrils, new shoots, as well as berries. However, mature leaves and ripe fruit are not susceptible. Infections of leaves first appear as red spots on the upper leaf surface in late spring.
These circular spots enlarge and become tan to light brown with distinct, dark borders. Small, pinpoint black fruiting structures of the fungus often develop in the centers of these spots.
Most serious damage usually occurs on the berries. On the fruit, infections first appear as whitish spots which enlarge to sunken areas with dark borders. Significant infections usually occur when the grape is pea-size or larger. As infection progresses, the fruit becomes black, wrinkled, mummified, and look like raisins. Infected grapes often shatter,leaving only the stem.

Survival and spread
The fungus overwinters on mummified berries on the soil or in old clusters still hanging in the vines. Secondary infections can occur when additional spores are produced on the newly infected tissues.
Favourable conditions
Moisture and temperature above 20-25 °C favours the development of disease.

Management Iprodion 75wg
Bitertsnol
Thiphenoate methyl

Bacterial leaf spot


Disease symptoms
The young growing shoots are affected first. Disease infects leaves, shoots and berries. The symptoms appear as minute water soaked spots on the lower surface of the leaves along the main and lateral veins.
Later on these spots coalesce and form larger patches. Brownish black lesions are formed onthe berries, which later become small and shriveled.

Survival and spread
The pathogen survives in infected plant residue in soil and seed borne.
Favourable conditions
The disease is more prevalent during June-August and again in February-March.
Temperature range of 25-30 ºC and relative humidity of 80-90% is favourable for the development of the disease.

Alternaria blight
Disease symptoms
The disease attacks both leaves and fruits. Small yellowish spots first appear along the leaf margins, which gradually enlarge and turn into brownish patches with concentric rings. Severe infection leads to drying and defoliation of leaves.
Symptoms in the form of dark brown-purplish patches appear on the infected berries, rachis and bunch stalk just below its attachment with the shoots.

Survival and spread
The disease is externally and internally seed borne. The pathogen survives through spores (conidia) or mycelium in diseased plant debris or weed.
Favourable conditions
Moist (More than 70% relative humidity) and warm weather (12-25 ºC) and intermittent rains favours disease development

chemical management:
Merivon BASF Cabrio top curzate Nativo

Black rot
Disease symptoms
The disease attacks the leaves, stem, flowers and berries. All the new growth on the vineis prone to attack during the growing season.
The symptoms are in the form of irregularly shapedreddish brown spots on the leaves and a black scab on berries.
Occasionally, small elliptical darkcoloured canker lesions occur on the young stems and tendrils. Leaf, cane and tendril infection canoccur only when the tissue is young, but berries can be infected until almost fully-grown if an activefungicide residue is not present.
The affected berries shrivel and become hard black mummies.

Survival and spread
Pathogen survives in soil and plant debris.
Favourable conditions
Warm and moist climate with extended periods of rain and cloudy weather favours the development of the disease.

Blue mould rot
Disease symptoms
Scanty growth – white and turn bluish green are seen.
Decay the berries.
Infected tissues become soft and watery.
Infected berries emit a mouldy flavor.
The fungus covers whole berries and it looks like bluish green in colour.

Survival and spread
Spores of this fungus are very common in the air and soil which are the source of infection.
Favourable conditions
Blue mold is most common when temperatures are higher than 10-14°C.
Free moisture for six hours or longer on the onion surface is necessary for infection to occur.

Black mould rot
Disease symptoms
It is a post-harvest disease. The fungus enters the berries through the injuries caused due to poor post-harvest handling operations.
The pulp of infected berries is reduced is reduced to watery consistency.
Berries look black in colour.

Survival and spread
Spores of this fungus are very common in the air and soil which are the source of infection.
Favourable conditions
Black mold is most common when temperatures are higher than 30°C (86°f) in the field or 24 °C in storage.
Free moisture for six hours or longer on the onion surface is necessary for infection to occur.

Green mould rot
Disease symptoms
It is a post-harvest disease. The fungus enters the berries through the injuries caused due to poor post-harvest handling operations.
Infected berries are discolored yellowish green, and affected fruits shrivel.
Masses of powdery green spores generally covered the bunch of grapes.
Survival and spread
Spores of this fungus are very common in the air and soil which are the source of infection.
Favourable conditions
Green mold is most common when temperatures are higher than 30°C in the field or 24°C in storage.
Free moisture for six hours or longer on the surface is necessary for infection to occur.

Rhizopus rot
Disease symptoms
Round irregular, light brown and water soaked lesion appear on fruits.
Decaying fruits emits fermented, moudly smell.
Conidia aseptate, small and globose
It is a post-harvest disease. Under warm and moist conditions the fungus grows rapidly producing acoarse grey mat of mycelium.
Injury caused to the berries by tight packing and storage temperaturehelp the fungus grown during storage. If the infected berries are trimmed at harvest, it does not occurafter harvest under ideal storage conditions.
Survival and spread
Spores of this fungus are very common in the air and soil which are the source of infection.
Favourable conditions
Black mold is most common when temperatures are higher than 30°C in the field or 24°C in storage.
Free moisture for six hours or longer on the surface is necessary for infection to occur.

Botrytis bunch rot or gray mold
Botrytis bunch rot or gray moldDisease symptoms
One or more berries of a cluster show signs of decay just before harvest. The decay may progress to include most of the berries in a cluster. The infected fruit may become covered with a grayish-tan powder containing the spores of the fungus.
Berry stems and cluster stems may be invaded, causing them to shrivel.
When the fungus decays berries low in sugar, the rotting berry has a sour odor and taste.
If the berries are nearly mature and have a high sugar content, the decaying berry is quite firm, dry, and somewhat sweetish to the taste. Berries that have split or have been punctured often are attacked by other organisms, resulting in a sour or moldy decay.

Survival and spread
Fungus survives in all decaying vegetation. Its spores are present in the vine yard throughout the year.
Favorable conditions
Brown mold is most common when temperatures are higher than 30°C in the field or 24°C in storage.
Free moisture for six hours or longer on the surface is necessary for infection to occur.

Rust


Disease symptoms
The symptoms are in the form of numerous orange coloured pustules on the lower surface of the leaves. In case of severe infection such pustules cover the entire leaf surface leading to severe defoliation.

Survival and spread:
The pathogens reproduce and survive in spots on leaves or stems and in fallen plant host debris.
Favourable conditions
Moisture and temperature above 20° C favours the development of disease.

Foot rot


Disease symptoms
Roots show black, sunken, necrotic lesions. In cross section, the base of the trunk appears necrotic and xylem vessels may be black in colour.
Leaves may appear to be water stressed or scorched, and vines may be stunted and/or killed.
Cylindrocarpon may occur in combination with other plant pathogens.

Survival and spread
Cylindrocarpon is a common soil-borne fungus which causes root rot in many plant species.
It survives in soil as mycelium and also produces conidia (spores) and chlamydospores (spores that can survive adverse conditions).
Favourable conditions
Moderate humidity and moist conditions

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