Diseases and Pests of Maize

Diseases of Maize

Leaf Blight

Caused by : Helmithosporium Maides

Symptoms of Damage

  • We can observe small yellowish round/oval water soaked spots on the lower leaves and gradually spreads to upper leaves.
  • Later spots of reddish brown margin covered with grey centre  start to enlarge and become elliptical.
  • Severe infestation leads to blighted appearance on the leaves.
  • This Fungus affects crop in younger stage.

Management

Spray Mancozeb of 2g/lit

Use JU Strepto plus Fungicide to control this diseases.

Use Plantomycin

Combination of Carbendazim and Mancozeb can also be used.

Maize Rust

Caused by : Puccinia sorghii

It is one of the fungal diseases which is caused due to germination of conidia by the fungus at temperature 10-12 degrees.

Symptoms of Damage

  • Brown coloured structures/pustules are seen on both surface of leaves
  • Uredospores are found on the rust fungus.
  • The alternate host is Oxalis corniunlata.
  • Cool temperature and high relative humidity favours the disease
  • Heavy infestation often reduces the vigour of the plant and finally leading to the death of the plant.

Management

Spray Mancozeb @ 1.25kg/ha.

Seed treatment with Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seeds.

Use Ridomil gold to control this disease.

Downy Mildew

Caused by : Peranosclerospora Sorghii

This disease is found in most of the crops. Young plants are highly susceptible (non tolerable) to this disease. This disease is caused due to low temperature and high relative humidity.

Symptoms of Damage

  • Affected plants become stunted
  • Pale colouration of leaves and downy growth on under surface of the leaves.
  • Chlorotic streaks appear on the leaf and white fungus growth is seen on both the surfaces of leaf.
  • Sometimes leafy growths in the tassel and proliferation of axillary buds on the stalk of the tassel are noticed.

Management

Spray Metalaxyl @ 2g/lit

Use Acrisio and Merivon fungicides to control this disease.

PESTS OF MAIZE

Stem Bore

Causal Organism : Chilo partellus

Symptoms of damage

  • Larvae bores the midrib of the plant and enter the stem,feeds on the internal tissues.
  • Central shoot of Maize shows “dead heart” symptom.
  • Bore holes can be easily observed on the stem near the nodes.
  • Young larva crawls and feeds on the tender leaves causing typical “shot hole” symptom.
  • The whole crop will be lost due to its damage

Management

Spray Emamectin Benzoate to control this disease

Use  insecticides like Thiodicarb and Lambda Cyhalothrin to control this pest.

Use Dimethoate @ 660ml/ha

Fall Armyworm

Causal organism : Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage

Young larva feeds on tender leaves

Mature larva makes circular holes

Inserts its half of the body inside the cobs and damages the crop

Management

Use Daman 47

Use Emamectin Benzoate

Use Corage

Use Vayego

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