Cucumber Plantaion and Management.

Introduction

• The cucumber is a warm season crop
• Originated from Northern India
• In Sri Lanka, best eaten sliced as a salad
• Appetizer with other vegetables because of its distinct flavor and texture

MORPHOLOGY


• Cucumber is a monoecious annual vegetable
• It is a sprawling vine with large leaves and curling tendrils
• The leaves are arranged alternately on the vines 6
• Plant produces yellow colour flowers
• The fruits are usually cylindrical
• Many-seeded berries

Recomended varieties
There are many local varieties belonging to many companies we can gro it as per our fruit requirements.

soil and climatic requirements

• Rainfall
Wet zone 2500 mm
Dry zone1200 – 1900 mm
• Soil – Any soil with high water-holding capacity and good drainage
• pH range——5.5 to 7.0
• Temperature—25–30˚С

Field preparation

Land preparation
• Prepare the field at least one month before planting
• Follow each plowing with harrowing
• For wet season cropping, prepare raised beds
• One week before planting, make holes 30 cm (1 feet)apart
• Apply well-decomposed animal manure
• Mix the manure thoroughly with soil

Planting

• Sow 3-4 seeds/hills and cover with a thin layer
of soil
• About 2-3 kg of seeds are required for one
hectare
• Irrigate the field right after sowing
• 5 to 7 days after germination, rogue excess seedlings and maintain only two plants/hill 14

Trellising


Trellising means giving support (a climbing plant) with a trellis.

• Ipil-ipil posts spaced 3-4 m apart are laid out in the field
• Wires can be used to connect the poles along each furrow
• synthetic straw can be used for vine training 15

Spacing

1 m x 1 m 3-4 seeds per planting hole

Fertilizer application

Apply DAP at the sowing time and carry ont feild appl;ication as follows.

Irrigation
• During the dry season, water regularly every 10-14 days
• Depending on the soil type and weather condition
• watering in the morning hours
• Avoid too much water
• Use drip irrigation system.

Weed control
• The beds should be kept free of weeds,especially in the early stages
• Later on, rapidly spreading vines suppress the weeds

Harvesting

• Most cucumber varieties will produce fruitready for harvest in 50 to 60 days
• The peak cucumber production months during the Maha season
• Check vines daily as the fruit starts to appear
• pick cucumbers whenever it big enough to use 19

STORAGE & POST- HARVEST

• Cucumber has over 90 % water
• Wrap tightly by a plastic wrap to retain moisture
• They can keep for a week to 10 days when
stored properly in the refrigerate

Pest and disease management:

Cucumber plants are susceptible to pests
Cucumber Beetles


There are two common types of cucumber beetle, striped and spotted, whose names refer to the markings on their bodies. Both varieties are common pests of plants in the cucurbit

Controlling Cucumber Beetles:

Inspection is a key element of prevention and control. Monitor plants and growing areas, including the growing medium, for any signs of pests. Use baited traps early in the season where cucumber beetles are known to be a problem. Manually remove any visible egg clusters or adults and dispose of them.

Use floating row covers to protect seedlings and new plantings. Maintain monitoring techniques to catch any pest issues early and determine if action is needed.

Introduce beneficial insects early in the growing season and supplement populations if pest levels increase. Ladybugs, green lacewing and assassin bugs will all feed on various life stages of cucumber beetles.

NemaSeek (Hb) beneficial nematodes should be applied to the soil of infested areas to control the pupal stage of the cucumber beetle.

If adult feeding damage is identified, apply kaolin clay (Surround WP) to plant foliage. The film left behind disorients insects and prevents feeding.

Spinosad sprays can be applied as soil drenches to kill larvae before they pupate in the soil.

B. bassiana sprays infect and kill cucumber beetles once they have hatched. They are most effective when targeting non-adult stages.

If immediate action and control is necessary, apply a pyrethrin or azadirachtin insecticide to the affected areas. Use caution if beneficial insects have been released or pollinators are present.

Lastly and perhaps most importantly, maintain a clean growing area and rotate cucurbit crops. Remove debris and harvest before fruit drops to the ground. This reduces overwintering habitat for cucumber beetles.

• Aphids


Aphids are slow moving and come in shades of green, red, brown, black and yellow. Their oblong bodies have two small tubes, called cornicles, projecting from their rear that are unique to them. These allow aphids to get rid of excess sugar in the form of honeydew. They have needlelike mouthparts which they use to suck juices out of plants. Aphids do not chew. If you notice chewing damage on a plant, look to identify a different culprit.

Management

Trap & Monitor

Yellow Sticky Traps work well for outdoor and potted plants where localized monitoring is desired.
Ribbon Traps are best for row crops and greenhouse settings. They save time and energy while giving thorough coverage

Neem Oil acts as a growth and feeding inhibitor while preventing respiration. Use as a contact insecticide for moderate infestations. High risk to beneficial insects in the growing area.

• Leafhoppers


Leafhopper
damage is characterized by light-colored speckling on plant leaves caused by the leafhoppers sucking sap and plant juices from within the plant tissue. Left unchecked, this gradual feeding reduces the plant’s vigor over time, browning the leaves. Damage caused by leafhoppers is usually not severe enough to seriously harm mature plants; however, young plants or new growth can be stunted and/or deformed by leafhopper feeding. Transmission of disease is a concern with select species of leafhoppers and the honeydew produced by some can aid in the propagation of fungal diseases; e.g. Beet leafhoppers vector curly top virus.

Leafhopper Control:

Control measures should be taken at the first sight of eggs/nymphs or damage as adult leafhoppers are difficult to control due to their mobility.

Remove overwintering sites by disposing of garden debris and waste immediately upon harvesting.
Row covers and shade cloth (Harvest Guard) can be used as physical barriers to limit leafhopper access to plants.
General Predators like Green Lacewing, Ladybugs and Assassin Bugs will consume all stages of leafhoppers, but are less effective controlling adults.
Diatomaceous Earth and Surround WP can be applied to leaf and fruit surfaces to deter leafhopper feeding. Both provide a physical barrier as well as insecticidal properties once leafhoppers come in contact with them.
If immediate control is necessary, use fast-acting insecticides like Pyrethrins or Azadirachtin to suppress leafhopper populations. Insecticides can offer you immediate control and enough of a knockdown that beneficials may be introduced later for more lasting control.

• Thrips


Adult and larval stages of thrips feed on foliage and flowers causing extensive damage in a short time period under the right conditions. Damage typically shows up as stippling, silvering of the leaves, or discolored patches on the leaf surfaces, but can also be identified by the unique twisting they cause on new growth. Discarded pollen and frass can also be a major issue for orchid, violet and other ornamental growers as the buildup is unsightly and reduces flower longevity.

management:
chemical management:
spinoterm 11.7sc at 168 ml 168 ml/acre.
Carbosulfan 25% EC at 300-400 ml /acre.
Acetamiprid 20% SP at 40-60 gm / acre.
Imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 60-90 ml/ acre.
Buprofezin 25% Sc at 1-2 ml/ lit of water.
Lambda Cyhalothrin 4.9% Cs at 200ml/acre.

• Grasshoppers

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