Crop Production :: Pulses :: Redgram

 CROP MANAGEMENT
. MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATION

1.  PREPARATION OF THE LAND

      Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t FYM/ha or composted coir pith at the time of last ploughing and form ridges and furrows.
SEED RATE

Quantity of seed required kg/ha
VarietiesCo 6Vamban 2LRG 41Co(Rg) 7VBN (Rg) 3APK 1
Sole Crop888151515
Mixed Crop333555

    [BSR 1 (Bund planting) 50 g/100 metre]

Select good seeds from pest and disease free plants.

2.   SEED TREATMENT

Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing (or) with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio control agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.

3.   TREATMENT OF THE SEEDS WITH BIOFERTILIZER Fungicide (or) bio control agents treated seeds should be again treated with bacterial culture after 24 hours. Treat the seeds required for sowing 1 ha with Rhizobial culture CRR 6 / CPR 9, phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) developed at

  • (200g). For red lateritic soil, Rhizobial culture VPR 1 is effective.
  • Using rice kanji as binder, Rhizobium should be given as seed treatment only. For PSB and PGPR, if the seed treatment is not carried out, apply 10 packets (2 kg) of Phosphobacteria (Bacillusm megaterium) and 10 packets (2 kg) of PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.

4.   APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

  • Apply fertilizers basally before sowing.
    Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg K2O +10 kg S*/ha
    Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O + 20 kg S*/ha

*Note : Applied in the form of gypsum if Single Super Phospate is not applied as a  source of phosphorus

  • Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition
  • Soil application of TNAU micronutrient mixture @ 5 kg/ha as Enriched FYM (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).

Foliar spray of 1% urea for yield improvement in black gram

For yield improvement through increasing the physiological, biochemical attributes, foliar spray of urea 1% on 30 and 45 days after sowing is recommended. For rice fallow pulses in Delta area, the present recommendation of foliar spray of 2% DAP may be continued.

Foliar spraying to mitigate moisture stress

Foliar spraying of 2%KCl + 100 ppm Boron during dry spell as mid season management practice in black gram during Rabi season is recommended to increase the yield over KCl spray alone .

Economizing the use of micronutrients through seed treatment for blackgram

Seed coating with biofertilizers and micronutrients viz., Zn, Mo & Co @ 4, 1, 0.5 g/kg of seed is recommended.

Nitrogen substitution by organic sources for pulses

50 per cent nitrogen can be substituted through organic source (850 kg of vermicompost per hectare).
Lime application is recommended for pulses with soil pH less than 6.0.

5. SOWING THE SEEDS Dibble the seeds adopting the following spacing

VarietyPure cropMixed crop
Low fertilityHigh fertility
Co(Rg) 745 cm x 30 cm60 cm x 30 cm120 cm x 30 cm
Vamban (Rg) 3, APK 145 cm x 20 cm60 cm x 20 cm120 cm x 30 cm
Co 6, Vamban 2, LRG 4190 cm x 30 cm120 – 150 x 30 cm240 cm x 30 cm
Bund Crop60 cm for BSR 1 and 30cm for others.

6. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha (2.5 litres/ha) on 3 DAS mixed with 500 litres of water using Backpack/Knapsack/Rocker sprayer using flat fan deflector type of nozzle. Then irrigate the field. Following this, one hand weeding may be given on 30-35 DAS
  • If herbicide is not given, give two hand weedings on 20 and 35 DAS.
  • In case of labour problem, apply Pendimethalin 0.75 kg (2.5 lit/ha) on 3 DAS followed by early post emergence application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha on 15 DAE of weeds (2 – 3 leaves stage of weeds) and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha on 20 DAE of weeds (2 – 3 leaves of weeds) are recommended for controlling broad leaved and grassy weeds, respectively. If both the weeds are present, tank mix application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha at 15 – 20 days after emergence of weeds (2 – 3 leaves stage of weeds) is recommended.
  • Apply PE metalachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS followed by one hand weeding on 40 DAS. Note: At the time of herbicide application, there should be sufficient soil moisture.

7. WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50 % flowering and pod development stages. Water stagnation should be avoided.
 
8. SPRAYING OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR UREA,  NAA AND  SALICYLIC ACID

  • Foliar spray of NAA 40 mg/l once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter
  • Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/l or urea 20 g/l once at flowering and another at 15 days there after
  • Foliar spray of salicylic and 100 mg/litre once at preflowering and another at 15 days there after

9. HARVESTING THE CROP

  • Harvest the whole plants when 80% of the pods mature.
  • Heap for 2 – 3 days
  • Dry and process.

 10. INTER-CROPPING

  • Raising one row of long duration redgram varieties  as inter crop for every six   rows of groundnut (6:1) is recommended for rainfed crops.
  • Raising one row of short and medium duration redgram  as inter crop for every four rows of groundnut (4:1) is recommended for rainfed as well  as for irrigated crops.

Multistoreyed cropping: For rainfed Vertisols of Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi districts recording more than 300 mm of rainfall during the crop growth period, multistoreyed cropping system Agathi + Redgram (CO 5) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) is highly profitable. (Agathi in I tier with 1 x 1 m spacing – Redgram in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 20 cm – Cotton in the III tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm – Blackgram in the IV tier with the spacing of 30 x 10

  • For rainfed Vertisols receiving less than 300 mm of rainfall, Agathi + Sorghum (CO 26) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) system is ideal. For both systems, apply 40 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. (Agathi in I tier with a spacing of 1 x 1 m – sorghum in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm – cotton in III tier with the spacing of 45 x 15 cm and Blackgram in IV tier with 30 x 10 cm).

REDGRAM TRANSPLANTING

  • Select only long duration redgram varieties
  • Transplant within the month of August either under rainfed condition or under irrigated condition
  • Select poly bag with a size of 6×4 inches and 200 micron thickness
  • Fill the poly bag with native soil: Sand: FYM @1:1:1 and put 3-4 holes in the bottom to avoid water stagnation
  • Soak the seeds in 0.2% Calcium chloride for one hour and dry it under shade for 7 hours to harden the seeds
  • Treat the hardened seeds with T. viride @ 4g/kg and 100 g Rhizobium and 100 g phosphobacterium. Sow the seeds @2/poly bag at 1 cm depth
  • Sow the seeds in polybags 30-45 days prior to transplanting
  • Plough the field deeply to get fine tilth followed by 2-3 harrowings at 3 weeks prior to transplanting
  • In medium to deep soils for raising long duration varieties, dig 15 sqcm pits at 5’ X 3’ for pure crops and 6’ x 3’ for intercropping under irrigated condition. In rainfed condition dig the pits at a spacing of 5’x3’. For short duration varieties dig 15 sq cm pits at 3’ x 2’ spacing.
  • Under water logging condition, form furrows before digging pits
  • Apply inorganic fertilizers @ 25:50:25 kg NPK /ha at 20-30 days after planting as urea, DAP and potash around the seedlings
  • Apply ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ ha as basal along with FYM or sand
  • Nip (removal of top 5 cm) the plants at 20 – 30 days after planting to arrest the terminal growth
  • Spray planofix @ 0.5 ml/litre to control flower dropping

11. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS

Redgram / Greengram/Blackgram/Cowpea

Zinc: Symptom appears within a month of sowing. The plants are stripped with yellow or pale green foliage. Veins and mid ribs of the leaves are green although tissue around them becomes yellow and bronzed.

Iron: Reduced concentration of Chlorophyll in leaves – pale leaf colour may be indistinguishable from deficiency of nitrogen or other elements.

CROP PHYSIOLOGY

Foliar spray of TNAU Pulse Wonder @ 2 kg/acre in 200 litres of water at flower initiation stage decreases flower shedding, increases yield and offers moisture stress tolerance

PERENNIAL REDGRAM

Variety:BSR 1
Economic uses:Tender beans are pinkish green in colour and can be cooked as curry or added to Kurma or Sabji. When the beans mature they can be used as Dhal.  Recommended for growing in kitchen gardens, backyards, farm road sides, as border crop in sugarcane, banana and betelvine and as a shade crop in turmeric and as a bund crop in paddy double  cropped  wetlands.
Season:June – July
Height of the plant :150 – 200 cm
Number of branches: 7 – 10
Flowering:Five months from date of sowing
Pit Size:Small pits are dug 90 cm apart and the pits are filled with a mixture of  well decomposed manure or compost and soil.
Fertilizer application:Urea 15 g and superphosphate 30 g / pit.
Planting methods:Two to three seeds are dibbled per pit and watered. When they grow six inches height one plant may be retained in each pit.
Irrigation:Need based
Harvesting:If harvested when the pods are tender the beans will be fit for making curry. Each plant will yield two to three kg of green pods at an average  seed yield of 750 g to one kg   per plant. After the first harvest the branches are pruned and allowed to grow further. In another 45 – 60 days the plants produce the second flush. For pure crop, about
3 kg of seeds may be required.

Crop Protection :: Pest of Red Gram

Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera
  • Symptoms of damage
  • Defoliation in early stages
  • Larva’s head alone thrust inside the pods and the rest of the body hanging out.
  • Pods with round holes
  • Small spots appear on the leaves. These spots increase in size and produces brown ring. In ring, lines are purple in colour.
  • When the disease increases,these spots become large and  interconnected with each other

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – are spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, laid singly
  • Larva – shows colour variation from greenish to brown. Green with dark brown grey lines laterally on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.
  • Pupa – brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris

Adult – light pale brownish yellow stout moth. Fore wing grey to pale brown with V shaped speck.Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin

Management

  • For pod borers, raise one row of sunflower as intercrop for
    every 9 rows of pigeon pea and plant maize as border crop.
  • Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha
  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
    • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
    • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
    • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
    • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
    • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
    • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
    • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
    • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
    • Neem oil 2%
    • Phosalone 0.07%
      (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
Blue butterfly: Lampides boeticus
Symptoms of damage Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes Presence of slug like caterpillar. Honey dew secretion with black ant movements

Identification of the pest Larva – It is flat and slightly rounded; Pale green with a rough skin.

Adult – moth is greyish blue with prominent black spots in the hind wings and a long tail; Ventral side of wings with numerous stripes and brown spots

Management

  • Avoid dense and close planting
  • Avoid early or late sowing
  • Regular soil digging cause death of larvae and pupae
  • Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp.,
  • Larval parasitoids, Hyperencyrtus lucoenephila and Litrodromus crassipes
  • Carbaryl 50 WP@ 1000 kg / ha
Grass blue butterfly: Euchrysops cnejus
Symptoms of damage Buds, flowers and young pods with boreholes and presence of slug like caterpillar. Larval entry hole on the pod is plugged with excreta

. Identification of the pest Larva – pale green or yellow with a red line and short black hairs on the body.

Adult – butterfly is blue, medium sized with 5 black spots in the hind wings and two black spots in the inner margin.


Management of pod borer complex ETL 10% affected parts Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa. Early sowing, short duration varieties. Avoid closer plant spacing. Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest. Install Bird perches @ 50/ha. Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population. Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times. Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage). Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%. Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D Spray insecticide Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.


Plume moth:


 Exelastis atomosa Symptoms of damage Pin head  size holes on  pods Small spiny caterpillars and pupae seen on the pods

  Identification of the pest Larva – is greenish brown, fringed with radiating hairs and spines

Adult – is delicate, brown coloured small moth with plumed wings.

Larva   Management: ETL: 5/plant Bird perches 50/ha Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol Apply any one of the following insectcides: Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05% Neem oil 2% Phosalone 0.07%
(Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray

Spotted pod borer: Maruca testulalis

Symptoms of damage

  • Bore holes on the buds, flower or pods
  • Infested pods and flowers are webbed together.

Identification of the pest

  • Larva – Greenish white with brown head. It has two pairs of dark spots on the back of each segment

Adult – Forewings – light brown colour with white markings;  Hindwings – white colour with brown markings at the lateral edge

Management

  • ETL: 5/plant
  • Bird perches 50/ha
  • Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle
  • Ha NPV 3 x1012 POB/ha in 0.1% teepol
  • Apply any one of the following insectcides:
    • Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP 2500-5000 g/ha
    • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP1000-1250 g/ha
    • Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha
    • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 220 g/ha
    • Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 333 ml/ha
    • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150ml/ha
    • Spinosad 45%SC 125-162 ml/ha
    • NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%
    • Neem oil 2%
    • Phosalone—–0.07%
      (Spray fluid 625 ml/ha) Note : Insecticide / Ha NPV spray
Pod fly: Melanagromyza obtusa
Symptoms of damage Dark brown encrustation on the pod wall Dry pods showing pin head size hole Seeds shriveled, striped and partially eaten Maggots cause damage by boring into the soft seeds and feed on grains. The damaged seeds are unfit for consumption as well as for germination. The extent of damage may be even upto 60-70% during severe infestation.  

Identification of the pest Eggs: Eggs are laid by them singly or in cluster inside the pod wall by piercing through the ovipositor. The fly lays about 60-80 eggs. Incubation period is 2-4 days.
Larva: Larval period is about 5-18 days
Pupa: Pupal period varies from 7-10 days. A number of overlapping generations are found in a year.
    Larva Adult
Management Conserve natural enemies like Euderus lividus, Eurytoma sp., Euderus agromyzae Spray Carbaryl 50 WP 1.5 kg or lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC 400 -500 ml or Lufenuron 5.4 EC 2.5 L with 700 L water/ha
Field bean pod borer: Adisura atkinsoni
Symptoms of damage The larva bores inside the pod and feeds on the seeds within.

Identification of the pest Eggs: are laid singly on flowers, buds and pods. The eggs are minute in size. The egg period lasts  for 3 days. Larvae: Full grown larva is 28-35 mm long, brownish green in colour. The larval periods lasts for 14-15 days. Adult: Moths are yellowish brown in colour.
Adult

Management

  • Conserve natural enemies like Bracon hebetor
  • ETL 10% affected parts
  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Early sowing, short duration varieties.
  • Avoid closer plant spacing.
  • Grow tall sorghum as comparison crop to serve as biological bird perches
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Conserve green lacewing, predatory stink bugs, spider, ants
  • Application of NPV 250 LE /ha with teepol 0.1% and Jaggery 0.5% thrice at 10 – 15 days interval commencing from flowering stage. (Note: Insecticide / Ha NPV spray should be applied when the larvae are in early stage).
  • Bt @ 600 g, neem oil/ pungum oil 80 EC @ 2ml/lit
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D
  • Spray insecticide Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha.

diseases – Wilt: Fusarium udum

Symptom

  • Leaves initially pale, loose their turgidity, droop down and finally     results in large scale withering  .
  • Gradual or sudden wilting from bottom to top is observed.
  • Entire plant wilts or dies within a few days.
  • The disease incidence occurs in patches in the field. 
  • Dark streaks are seen when the bark of stem below the soil level and tap root are removed.
  • The  affected stem exhibit vascular browning  indicating xylem   plugging with mycelia.
  • The disease is soil borne. 

Management

  • Seed treatment with   talc formulation of T. viride @ 4g or P. fluorescens @ 10 g/kg  Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg
  • Basal soil application of  neem cake @ 150 Kg/ ha
  • Soil application  of  P. fluorescens or T. viride@ 2.5 Kg / ha + 50 Kg of well  decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.

Spot drenching with  Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre

Root Rot :(Scelerotial stage :Rhizoctonia bataticola )(Pycnidial stage :Macrophomina phaseolina

  • symptom
  • occurs both in young seedlings and grown up plants.
  • The lower leaves show yellowing, drooping and premature defoliation.
  • The discolored area later turns black and   death of plants occur.
  • The infected plants can be easily pulled out due to the rotting of the roots.
  • Minute dark sclerotia are seen in the shredded bark (collar region and root).
  • Large number of brown dots  on the stem portion represent the  pycnidial stage.
  • Prolong dry weather or drought followed by irrigation or rain favours   this disease build up.
  •  

Management

  • Seed treatment  with   talc formulation of T. viride @ 4g or P. fluorescens @ 1g/kg seed (or) Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kgNeem cake @ 150 Kg/ha
  • Soil application of  P. fluorescens or T. viride@ 2.5 Kg / ha + 50 Kg of        well decomposed FYM or sand at 30 days after sowing.

Powdery mildew: Leveillula taurica

Symptom
It is an Oidiopsis type of powdery mildew in which the   mycelium is endophytic. The affected leaf shows powdery patches on the lower surface corresponding with yellowing   on the upper surface. Usually older l eaves show symptom first. There will be premature   defoliation of affected leaves. The disease is air borne Management  Spraying with Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) 5% or  Neem oil 3% twice at 10 days   intervals from initial disease appearance. Spray Carbendazim 1g/lit or Wettablesulphur 2.5g/lit.

Yellow Mosaic: Redgram Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD): Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV)

Symptom
Vector: Aceria cajani The affected plants are stunted due to shortening of     internodes. The auxiliary buds are stimulated to grow and the     branches are crowded at the top giving bushy  appearance. Mainly three types of symptoms are associated viz.   severe mosaic in leaflets with complete sterility , mild    mosaic with partial sterility and ring spots characterized by a green island surrounded by a   chlorotic halo.

Complete sterility after flowering
Management Rouging  out infected plants up to 40 days after sowing Spraying with Fenazaquin @ 1 ml/ litre   soon after appearance of the disease and if necessary     repeat after 15 days.

yellow mosaic virus

Symptom
The disease first appears in the form of yellow, diffused spots scattered on the   leaf   lamina such spots slowly expand and in later stages  , yellow patches   alternated   with green patches  developed on the leaves. Newly formed leaves completely turn yellow Infected plants stunted and produce only few pods The  virus is transmitted through white fly  Bemisia tabaci

Management Rogue out the infected plants upto 40 days. Remove weed hosts periodically Spray Methyldemeton @ 500 ml/ha 


Integrated disease management Deep summer ploughing Application of Farmyard manure @12.5 Kg/ha along with 2.5 kg of Trichoderma  viride or Pseuodomonas fluorescens Seed treatment with  Talc formulation of Trichoerma  viride @ 4g or Pseuodomonas fluorescens @ 10   g/kg Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1 g/ litre of water to control root rot and wilt diseases Avoid water stress during flowering period to control root rot Rogue out infected plants up to 40 days after sowing for managing sterility mosaic and yellow mosaic diseases

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