COTTON CULTIVATION

IMPORTANCE

Cotton is originated in India.

It is popularly known as WHITE GOLD.

It is Backbone of textile industry.

About 45% of the world fibre and 10-25% of the edible oil is met by cotton.

BT cotton is effective against Bollworm pest complex of cotton.

THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF COTTON BASED ON BRANCHING

1. MONOPODIAL

These are popularly known as Vegetative branches( Auxiliary buds).

2. SYMPOIDIAL

These are known as Reproductive branches.

CLASSIFICATION OF COTTON

There are 4 cultivated species of Cotton out of 20 species. They are as follows.

1. Gossypium arborium

2n= 26, and is Diploid in nature.

About 16% of the area in India is covered by this variety.

Varieties: Lohit, Virnar, K9, K10, K11.

2. Gossypium herbaceum

2n=26, and is also diploid in nature.

Both of these species are called as Desi cotton/ Asiatic cotton.

About 8% of the area is covered by this variety.

Varieties: Digvijaya, Sanjay.

3. Gossypium hirsutum

2n=52, and is tetraploid in nature.

It is generally called as American cotton.

About 36% of the area is covered by this variety.

Varieties: MCU 5(Extra long), Ganganagaragety, Bikanerinerma, Mahalaxmi.

4. Gossypium barbadense

2n=52, and is also tetraploid in nature.

It is having higher fibre length of 3.6- 5 cm

Both of these species are known as Egyptian / Sea island cotton.

About 40% of the area is covered by this variety.

Varieties: Suvin (Anjali), Surabi and Sujatha.

HYBRIDS

1.H- 4: First hybrid variety of cotton (G-67*Amaricannectorless) developed by C. T Patel, Surat in 1970.

2. Varalaxmi: (G.hirsutum* G. Barbadence).

3. Maruvikas/Raj: 1st Hybrid of Hirsutum in Rajasthan.

4. Savita: Hybrid of G. Hirsutum.

5. Surya: Hybrid of G. Hirsutum.

CROP DESCRIPTION

It is having Taproot system.

It contains 35% of protein.

Germination takes place in 4-7 days after sowing.

Crop is highly tolerant to soil salinity.

Temperature

For proper bud formation and flowering daytime temp should be higher than 20 degree, lower than 40 degree

Night temp should be more than 12 degree but less than 27 degree.

A temperature between 27 and 32 degree is optimum for boll development (fruiting) and maturation but above 38 degree yields are reduced.

Optimum temperature for vegetative growth is 21 degree.

pH

5.5 to 8

SOILS

Deep Black Cotton soils can be used for sowing

Seed depth should be more than 60 cm.

Coarse textured soil is preferred for high rainfall areas.

Clay soil is preferred during moisture problem.

SEED RATE

Desi Cotton: 10-18 kg and Spacing of 67.5*30cm

American Cotton: 15-25 kg and Spacing of 67.5* 30cm

Hybrid Cotton: 2-3kg and spacing of 100*60cm

Plant population: 50,000- 80,000 (Average of 65,000)

For BT Cotton: 1-1.5kg/ha

 Plant Population: 10,000

SOWING TIME

In North India: 1st Fortnight of may (From 15thof may).

In Central India: Last week of June to First week of July.

In Tamil Nadu: Sep- Oct.

Dibbling

Depth should be 3cm

INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS

Gap should be filled at 10th day after sowing.

Thinning( Removal of leaves and shoots) should be done at 15th day after sowing.

Nipping (Pinching of shoots/ leaves) 80-90 days after sowing.

Topping is followed in cotton which involves removal of growing point once from each plant at a height of 1-1.2 m to protect further terminal growth.

SQUARE IN COTTON

The formation of flower bud in cotton is known as square  and Fruit is called as Boll/Capsule.

GINNING

Seperation of fibre from cotton is called Ginning.

It generally ranges between 30- 35%.

WEED MANAGEMENT

Important weeds are Trianthima, Echinoclova, Diseria. To control weeds Diuron @ 0.5kg a.i./ha is sprayed. Cotton is highly sensitive to 2,4- D and Glyphosate, injured by a spray drift.

2,4-D resistant cotton is gene tfd-A.

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION : It should be manured with FYM or Compost atleast once in 3 years at the rate of 12-15 tons/ha. The fertilizer dose of 100:50:50 (NPK) kg/ha- Irrigated cotton

80:40:40 (NPK) kg/ha- Rainfed cotton hybrids

50:25:25 (NPK) kg/ha- For both Desi and Egyptian varieties.

YIELD

Yield varies from 15-20 quintals per acre fetches about 2.5 lakh rupees.

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