CHILLI CULTIVATION

Scientific name : Capsicum annum

Chillies are primarily used as spice under various dishes and other culinary purpose.

It contains a bioactive compound called capsaisin which gives chilly its odour and spiciness.

Important varieties

Syngenta 5531, Syngenta hot pepper 2043, Indam 5, Seminis arunim, Red patti, Sitara seminis etc.

Hybrids

Co 1, Co 2, Co 4, PMK 1, K2 and PLR 1.

Chillies can be mostly grown in southern part of India like Andra Pradesh(Top producer), Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu.

Soil

It requires well drained loamy soils rich in organic matter and requires pH of 6.5-7.5.

Season of sowing
1.Summer season: January – February
2. Kharif season : June – July
3.Rabi season : September- October

Seed rate
Varieties: 1.0 kg / ha.
Hybrids: 200 – 250 g / ha.
Nursery area required is 100 sq.m / ha.

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg

Seeds have to be sown in lines spaced at 10 cm in raised nursery beds and cover with sand.

 Watering with rose can has to be done daily.

 Nursery maintainance

  • Prepare the nursery area of 3 cm with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
  • Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
  • Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.
  • Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protay. 300 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 29,000 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 45 cm in a paired row system.
  • Sow the treated seed in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
  • Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.
  • After 6 days place the protrays with germinated seedlings individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.
  • Water with rose can everyday upto seed germination. Drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.

Land Preparation

 2-3 ploughings should be done followed by clod crushing.

Prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM.

 Irrigate the furrows and transplant 40-45 days old seedlings, with the ball of earth on the ridges.

Spacing

Varieties requires a spacing of 60 x 45 cm
Hybrids requires a spacing of 75 x 60 cm

Weed control
We can observe weeds like Cyanodon dactylon, Cyperous rotundus, Convolulus arvensis etc. in chilli palnt.

Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha as pre-emergence herbicide followed by hand weeding once 30 days after planting and earthing up 45 days after transplantation.

Irrigation


Irrigation is done at weekly intervals.

For Heavy soil : 10-15 days interval

In summer season : 5-6 days interval

Fertigation

Basal dose is given after transplanting

During planting 20 kg of FYM along with Azospirullum and Phosphobacteria of 2kg/ha each has to be given

And we have to apply Urea of 20kg/ac, SSP of 50Kg/ac, DAP of 50kg/ac

To correct Zn deficiency we can apply Znso4 at 10kg/ac  Brand GR of 10kg/ac and Yaramila complex of 25 kg/ac can also be used to increase the yield.

Top dressing is done 25 days after transplanting along with this 19:19:19 is also sprayed.

Second dose

SSP at 100kg/ac, Ammonium sulphate 40kg/ac, Brand GR 10kg/ac, MOP 20kg/ac, Yara nitrobor 25kg/ac, Mgso4 5kg/ac has to be mixed and applied.

Third dose

We have to give third dose after flowering

10:26:26 at 50 kg/ac

Yaramila complex at 25 kg/ac

Boron 10% at 50kg/ac all these should be mixed at sprayed.

We can also use bioproducts like Damman plus and Okeoo 10 in order to increases flowering, fruitset and to reduce flower and fruit drop.

Yara bud builder is used for post flowering.

Intercropping

The intercrops like onion and coriander can be grown for getting additional income. It can also help to control the weed population.

Crop Protection

Diseases

We can observe number of diseases in chilli like Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Bacterial blight, Anthracnose, Leaf spot etc.

By using fungicides and bactericides we can control these diseases.

Pests

Important insects pests of chilli are Jassids, thrips, Whiteflies, leaf minor, mites etc.

By using insecticides and pesticides we can control these pests in the chilli field.

Harvesting

We can harvest chillies 75 days after sowing.

1St two pickings is done to harvest green chillies and subsequently red chillies can be harvested.

Yield

Yield is different for both varieties and hybrids.

Varieties

  • Green chilies: 10-15 t/ha
  • Red dry chillies : 2-3 t/ha

Hybrids

25t/ha of green chillies can be obtained.

 Post harvest Management

After harvesting chillies are allowed to dry.

There should be 12% moisture in dried chillies. Chillies are bright red in colour.

3 thoughts on “CHILLI CULTIVATION”

    1. Good afternoon sir
      Imidachloprid-60-90ml/acre, Bio R 303-1.5ml/lit, Dhal-6-2l/acre spray chesthe thrips control awtundi

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