Brinjal farming and pest management

Brinjal is one of the most common tropical vegetables grown in India. It is known by different names like Begun (Bengali), ringna (Gujarathi), baingan ( Hindi), badane (Kannada), waangum (Kashmiri), vange ( Marathi), baigan (Oriya), Vashuthana ( Malayalam), Kathiri (Tamil), venkaya (Telugu) and Peethabhala (Sanskrit). A large number of cultivars differing in size, shape and colour of fruits are grown in India.
Fruits are moderate sources of vitamins and minerals like phosphorous, calcium and iron and nutritive value varies from variety to variety.

Soil
Well drained soil rich in organic matter with pH of 6.5-7.5.

Season of Sowing
It can be grown in plains throughout the year but rabi season is the best.

Rainy Season – June – July
Winter Season – October – November
Summer Season – February – March

Nursery bed preparation
Apply FYM 10 kg, neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, enriched super phosphate 100 g and furadon 10 g per square metre before sowing. Area required for raising seedling for planting 1.0 ha is 100 sq.m.

Seed rate
Hybrids : 80g/acr

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg of seed. Treat the seeds with Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive. Irrigate with rose can. In raised nursery beds, sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart and cover with sand. Transplant the seedlings 30 – 35 days after sowing at 60 cm apart in the ridges.

seeds variety

Purple variegated spiny With prominent spines and eye-catching features including an attractive colour, this hybrid variety has better retention in summer.
Tricolor spiny A visually appealing variety distinguished by its prominent spines with high yield potential and good taste.
Pink Long The Pink Long is a high yield potential variety with better colour and shape retention capabilities during summers. This is a strong plant that with longer periods of harvest.
Semi erect, Tall spreading Fruit shape : Oval Fruit colour : Light purple green varigated Fruit weight (g) : 80-90 Maturity : 50-55 days
Tolerance :Bacterial wilt very good keeping quality

Protected nursery

Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.

Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40 / 50 mesh insect proof nylon net.

Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.

Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with neem cake 5 kg. along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling one protray. 200 protrays are required for the production of 18,700 seedlings, which is required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 75 cm in paired row system.

Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.

Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.

After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.

Water with rose-can everyday and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.

Field preparation
Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t / ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg / ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg / ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 30-35 days old seedlings at 60 cm apart on the ridges.

Spacing
Varieties : 60 x 60 cm
Hybrids : 90 x 60 cm

Mulching
Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.

Weed control
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or as pre-emergence herbicide, followed by hand weeding once at 30 days after planting.

Irrigation
After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals.

Layout and planting for drip irrigation and fertigation

Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal dose before last ploughing.

Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.

Apply 75 % total recommended dose of superphosphate i.e. 703 kg / ha as basal.

Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.

Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of the each bed.

Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.

Planting to be done at a spacing of 90x60x75 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 75 cm spacing.

Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.

Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.

Manure and fertilizers
The fertilizer dose depends upon the fertility of soil and amount of organic manure applied to the crop. For a good yield, 15-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM is incorporated into the soil.

Generally, application of 150 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O is recommended for optimum yield. Half dose of N 25 2 and full dose of P and K is given at the time of planting. The balance half of N is given in 3 equal split doses. The first split dose is given one and half month after transplanting, the second dose one month after the first application and the final at three and half months after transplanting.

For hybrid varieties, the recommended dose is 200 kg N, 100 kg P2O5 and 100 Kg K2O. Out of this dose, 25 2 25 % of N and 100 % of P & K is applied as basal dose. Remaining 75 % of P is applied in three equal split doses. The first split dose of N is applies 20 days after transplanting. The second dose is given just before the onset of flowering while the third after the first picking/harvesting.

Brinjal pest and its management :

IPM practices
Bird perches @ 10/ acre should be erected for facilitating field visits of predatory birds.
Delta and yellow sticky traps @ 2-3/ acre should be installed for hoppers, aphids and white fly etc.
Give 2 to 3 sprays of 5 % NSKE against sucking pests.
Sprays of NSKE also bring down the borer incidence significantly. Neem oil (2%) application is also helpful in reducing borer infestation, though marginally. If incidence of leaf hopper and other sucking insect pests is still above ETL, then apply imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 150 ml/ha.
Pheromone traps @ 5/ acre should be installed for monitoring and mass trapping of shoot & fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 15-20 day interval.
Release egg parasitoid T. brasiliensis @ 1 – 1.5 lakh/ ha for shoot & fruit borer, 4-5 times at weekly interval.
Apply neem cake @ 250 kg/ ha (in two splits) in soil along the plant rows at 25 and 60 DAT for reducing nematodes and borer damage. Don’t apply neem cake when there is heavy wind velocity or temperature is above 300C.
Clipping of borer damaged shoots and collection and destruction of damaged fruits i.e. clean cultivation helps in management of borer and phomosis disease effectively.
If the borer incidence crosses ETL (5% infestation), apply cypermethrin 25 EC @ 200 g a.i/ha (0.005%)
Continuous cropping of brinjal leads to more borer and wilt infestation. Therefore, crop rotation with non-solanaceous crops should be followed.
Periodically collect and destroy the egg masses, larvae and adults of hadda beetle.
Rogue out the little leaf affected plants from time to time.
Use of green manure, mulching with polythene, soil application with bleaching powder will reduce the infection of bacterial wilt disease.

IPM of Brinjal

Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (BFSB) is a very dangerous pest of brinjal. It not only reduces the yield by making holes in shoots as well as in fruits but also reduces the aesthetic value of the fruits so loss get doubled. It is a monophagous pest feeds only on Brinjal. The normal control measures like spraying of pesticides does not solve the problem instead making the environment polluted, ecological disturbance and vegetable poisoning.

Pest Identification : The adult is grayish-brown moth with white wings. The fore and hind wings are provided with marginal hairs and bears pinkish-brown spots. The adult size is 20 mm across the spread wings.

Damage To Crop : Larva is a internal feeder, it immediately bore into the nearest tender shoot or flower or fruit just after hatching. Soon after boring into shoots or fruits, they plug the entrance hole with excreta. As a result, the affected twigs, flower and fruits dries up and may drop off. Presence of wilted shoots in an eggplant field is the surest sign of damage by this pest. This reduces plant growth, which in turn, reduces fruit number and size. New shoots can arise but this delays crop maturity and the newly formed shoots are also subject to larval damage. Larval feeding in flowers results in failure to form fruit from damaged flowers. Larval feeding inside the fruit results in destruction of fruit tissue. The feeding tunnels are often clogged with frass. This makes even slightly damaged fruit unfit for marketing. The yield loss varies from season to season and from location to location.

Control Measures : The IPM strategy based on pheromone reduces pesticide abuse. The pheromone confuse the male adult from mating and thus preventing fertilized egg production by trapping significant number of male moths, which results in reduction of larval and adult population build-up.

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