Brinjal disease and pest management

Shoot and fruit borer: Leucinodes orbonalis
Symptoms of damage: Withering of terminal shoots/dead hearts Bore holes on shoots and fruits plugged with excreta Shedding of flower buds Withering and drying of leaves
Identification of pest: Eggs:  Creamy white eggs Larva:  Pink in colour Pupa: Greyish boat shaped cocoon Adult: Medium sized moth. Forewings has black and brown patches and dots on white colour, hind wings are opaescent with black dots 
Management:
Remove the affected terminal shoot showing boreholes. Remove the affected fruits and destroy. Avoid continuous cropping of brinjal crop Grow the varieties with long and narrow fruits in endemic areas Install pheromone trap@12/ha Encourage the activity of larval parasitoids: Pristomerus testaceus, Cremastus flavoorbitalis Avoid use of synthetic pyrethroids Avoid using insecticides at the time of fruit maturation and harvest Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5 % or Spray any one of the following chemicals starting from one month after planting at 15 days interval  
InsecticideDose
Azadirachtin 1.0% EC (10000 ppm)3.0  ml/lit.
Azadirachtin 0.03 % WSP (300 ppm)5.0  g/lit.
Chlorpyrifos 20 % EC1.0  ml/lit.
Dimethoate 30 % EC7.0  ml/10 lit.
Emamectin benzoate 5 % SG4 g/10 lit.
Flubendiamide 20 WDG7.5 g/10 lit.
Phosalone 35 % EC1.5  ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC1.5 ml/lit.
Thiodicarb 75 % WP2.0 g/lit.
Thiometon 25 % EC1.0 ml/lit.
Trichlorofon 50 % EC1.0 ml/lit.
Triazophos 40 % EC2.5 ml/lit.

Stem borer: Euzophera perticella

Symptoms of damage:

  • Top shoots of young plants droop and wither.
  • Older plants become stunted.
  • Fruit bearing is affected

Identification of pest:

  • Egg: Cream, scale-like
  • Larva: Fully grown larva is creamy white
  • Adult: Greyish brown, forewings has transverse line and hind wings are white in colour

Management:

  • Collect and destroy the damaged and dead plants
  • Light trap @1/ha to attract and kill adults
  • Spray neem oil 2ml/lit  
  • Avoid using synthetic pyrethriods causing resurgence
  • Applying of cartap hydrochloride 4%sp spray
Hadda / spotted beetle: H.vigintioito punctata
Symptoms of damage: Scrapping of chlorophyll Skeletonization and drying of leaves Identification of pest: Eggs: Cigar shaped, yellow in colour Grub:  Yellowish bearing six rows of longitudinal spines. Pupa: Yellowish with spines on posterior part and anterior portion being devoid of spines. Adult:  14 spots on each elytra, deep red
Management: Collect damaged leaves with grubs and egg masses and destroy them Shake plants to dislodge grubs, pupae and adults and destroy Conserve natural enemies in brinjal ecosystem Spray Carbaryl 50 WP @ 3g/lit           Ash weevils: Myllocerus subfasciatus, M. discolor, M. viridanus Symptoms of damage: Notching of leaf margins Grubs feed on roots causing wilting of plants Identification of pest: Larva Grub: Small and apodous Pupa: Pupates in soil in earthen cocoons Adult: M. maculosus: Greenish white with dark lines on elytra M. subfasciatus: Brown M. discolor: Brown and white spots M. viridanus: Small light green weevil Management: Collect and destroy adults Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing In endemic areas, apply carbofuran 3 G @15 kg/ha on 15 days after planting Spray carbaryl 50 WP @3g + wettable sulphur 2g/litre       Brown leaf hopper: Cestius phycitis Symptoms of damage: Reduction in size of leaves Shortened petioles Excessive growth of branches general stunting of plants Conversion of floral parts into leafy structures Plants become bushy Fruiting is rare Vector of little leaf of brinjal Identification of pest: Adult: Small light brown leaf hopper Management: Remove infected plants and destroy them Before transplantation dip the seedlings in 0.2% carbofuran 50 STD solution (control insect vectors) Spray with dimethoate 0.3%     Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Symptoms  Mosaic mottling of leaves and stunting of plants are the characteristic symptoms of potato virus Y Mosaic symptoms are mild in early stages but later become severe. Infected leaves are deformed, small and leathery. Very few fruits are produced on infected plants. The important symptom produced by tobacco mosaic virus is conspicuous mottling of leaves. Leaves also develop blisters in advanced cases. Severely infected leaves become small and misshapen. Plants infected early remain stunted. PVY is easily sap transmitted. It is transmitted in the field through aphids, Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae and perpetuates on weed hosts like Solanum nigrum and S.xanthocarpum. TMV is transmitted by sap, contaminated implements and clothes, soil debris and hands of labour. It can perpetuate on many cultivated plants like cucurbits, legumes, pepper, tobacco, tomato and weed hosts. The virus survives in plant debris in soil Wash hands with soap and water before working in seed beds. Prohibit smoking or chewing of tobacco who are handling brinjal seedlings. Spray insecticides like Dimethoate 2 ml/litre or Metasystox 1 ml/litre of water to control the insect vectors .   Bacterial Wilt: Pseudomonas solanacearum Symptoms Bacterial wilt symptoms on leaf surface Wilting, stunting, yellowing of the foliage and finally collapse of the entire plant are the characteristic symptoms of the disease. Lower leaves may droop first before wilting occurs. The vascular system becomes brown. Bacterial ooze comes out from the affected parts. Plant show wilting symptoms at noontime will recover at nights, but die soonent Pant samrat variety is tolerant. Crop rotation with cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower help in reducing the disease incidence. Fields should be kept clean and effected parts are to be collected and burnt. Spray Copper fungicides to control the disease (2% Bordeaux mixture.) The disease is more prevalent in the presence of root knot Nematodes, so control of these nematodes will suppress the disease spread.   Collar rot: Sclerotium rolfsii Symptoms The disease occasionally occurs in serious form. The lower portion of the stem is affected from the soil borne inoculum (sclerotia). Decortications is the main symptom. Exposure and necrosis of underlying tissues may lead to collapse of the plant. Near the ground surface on the stem may be seen the mycelia and sclerotia. Lack of plant vigour, accumulation of water around the stem, and mechanical injuries help in development of this disease. hoderma viride formulation per kg seed will help in reducing the disease. Spraying with Mancozeb @ 2g/Litre of water. Collection and destruction of diseased parts and portions of the plant. 

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